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重点语法讲义及练习

本文属阅读资料
主讲人:胥国红 北京航空航天大学

1. 动词的时态和语态

1.1 动词的时态和语态一览表

时态语态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时

主动被动 doare done didwere done will dowill be done

现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时

主动被动 are doingare being done were doingwere being done will be doing

现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时

主动 被动 have donehave been done had donehad been done will have donewill have been done

现在完成进行时

主动 被动 have been doing

1.2 动词主要时态的意义及运用

1) 现在完成时,过去完成时和将来完成时

英语提示语:up to now, so far, for three years, since 1995, over past ten years, by the end of this week, by the year of 1995

汉语提示语:已经,早已,了

e.g. We haven’t met each other since last year.

By the end of this week, we’ll have finished the task.

2) 现在完成进行时

从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。

汉语提示语:一直

e.g. The water has been running the whole night.

3) 过去完成时

a) said, reported, thought 等引导的间接引语中。

e.g. He missed the train. He said he had missed the train.

b) hardly…when, no sooner… than

e.g. No sooner had he got up than he received the call.

c) 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的条件状语从句中

e.g. If I had tried harder, I would have won.

I wish I had done better in the exam.

历年考题中的动词时态和语态

1. Much of the carbon in the earth ___ (come) from things that once lived.

2. In the past two decades, research ___ (expand) our knowledge about sleep and dream.

3. Some proverbs ___ (be) in the language for 1,000 years, for example, A friend in need is a friend indeed.

4. ___ (stand) at the gate was a young man in green coat.

5. In 1991, after the Gulf War, Bush’s approved rating reached 91 percent, the highest level recorded since polling ___ (begin) in the 19302.

6. Seeing violence on television or reading about it in the newspapers every day ___ (make) us tolerate crime more than we should.

7. So far, Irving ___ (live) in New York City for ten years.

8. The patient ___ (send) to another hospital before we got there.

9. The second half of the nineteenth century ___ (witness) the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi.

10. All the worries they might have felt for him ___ (drive) off by the sight of his cheerful face.

Key:

1. comes 一般现在时,主语为不可数名词,谓语用单数

2. has expanded 现在完成时

3. has been 现在完成时

4. Standing 过去进行时的倒装形式

5. began 一般过去时

6. makes 一般现在时,动名词做主语,谓语用单数

7. has been living 现在完成进行时

8. had been sent 过去完成时的被动形式

9. witnessed 一般过去时

10. were driven 一般过去时的被动

2. 非谓语动词

2.1 动词主要时态和语态一览表

非谓语动词 形式 意义

现在分词

一 般 式 Doing 主动, 正在进行

被 动 式 being done 被动, 正在进行

完成主动式 having done 主动, 已经完成

完成被动式 having been done 被动, 已经完成

过去分词 Done 被动, 已经完成

动词不定式

一 般 式 To do 主动,将要进行

被 动 式 To be done 被动, 将要进行

完成主动式 To have done 主动, 已经完成

进行主动式 To be doing 主动, 正在进行

2.2. 非谓语动词作状语

•动词不定式:1)目的状语;2)结果状语

e.g. I came here to meet you. (目的)

He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. (结果)

•分词:1) 伴随状语;2)原因状语;3)条件状语 4)让步状语;5)时间状语

e.g. Walking along the street, he met his old friend. (时间)

Being very tired, my father didn’t go out with us. (原因)

Made by hand, the silk shirt is very expensive. (原因)

Seen from the space, the earth looks like a blue ball. (条件)

2.3 非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构

1) Having done their homework, the children began to play. (分词作状语)

2) After having done their homework, the children began to play. (连词+分词)

3) After they had done their homework, the children began to play. (状语从句)

4) With homework done, the children began to play. (独立结构)

2.4 非谓语动词作定语

1) If there is no choice, there is no decision ___ (make). (to be made)

2) Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

3) The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

4) The bridge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition. (built)

2.5 动名词和动词不定式

• 作主语和表语

动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

e.g Rising early is good for health.

To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.

It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.

My biggest wish is to go abroad.

Seeing is believing.

• 作宾语

接动名词作宾语的动词:

admit, acknowledge, avoid, appreciate, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, forgive, finish, include, involve, mind, put off, postpone, suggest, feel like, look forward to, be used to, be accustomed to, etc.

接动词不定式作宾语的动词:

want, tend, intend, pretend, hope, plan, expect, be supposed to, seem, be likely to, used to, be willing to, desire, force, prefer, start, begin

接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:

1) forget, remember, regret

2) stop, continue

3) need/ want

4) allow doing/ allow sb to do

(1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

Sorry, I forgot to lock the door.

(2) I can’t stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand?

(3) The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.

(4) We don’t allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.



历年考题中的非谓语动词

1. A man cannot be really happy if what he enjoys ___ (do) is ignored by society as of no value or importance.

2. Anyone ___(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.

3. It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes ___ (control) his direction.

4. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals ___ (use) in experiments may decrease.

5. It seems reasonable to assume that, other things ___ (be) equal, they would prefer single to shared rooms.

6. This poem, if ___ (translate) word for word into Chinese, will make no sense.

7. They may have their passports _____ (remove), making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible.

8. Her body, with hands and feet ____ (bind), was discovered by a traveler early in the morning.

9. I couldn’t help but ___ (feel) this is a very strange life.

10. Let us consider the earth as a planet ____ (revolve) round the sun.

Key:

1. doing 动名词做enjoy的宾语

2. wanting 现在分词作定语

3. to control 动词不定式作目的状语

4. used 过去分词作定语

5. being 现在分词用在独立结构中

6. translated 连词加过去分词作状语

7. removed 过去分词作宾补

8. bound 过去分词用在独立结构中

9. feel couldn’t help but 后接动词原形

10. revolving 现在分词作定语

3. 虚拟语气

第一大类:非真实条件下的虚拟语气

时间 从句 主句

与现在事实相反 did/ were should/could/would + do

与过去事实相反 had done should/could/would + have done

与将来事实相反 were to doshould do should/could/would + do

e.g. If I were you, I would be happy to do it.

If we had got the news, we could have prepared earlier.

If the job were to succeed, you should work harder.

第二大类:从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气

1) would rather + 从句

2) wish + 从句

3) if only + 从句

4) as if/ as though + 从句

5) It’s time + 从句

e.g. I would rather you didn’t tell me the story now.

I would rather you had told me the story yesterday.

第三大类:从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。

1) suggest, propose, advise, move(动议), ask, order, require, request, desire, insist, prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句;

2) suggestion, proposal, advice, motion, order, requirement, request, desire, preference等名词后的同位语从句;

3) important, necessary, essential, imperative, desirable, advisable, preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中;

4) lest, in case, for fear that 等引导的从句中。

e.g. It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

It is my suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.

It is necessary that the meeting (should) be put off.

He came to the office earlier lest he (should) miss the important meeting.



历年考题中的虚拟语气

1. If it hadn’t been for your help, we ___ (be) in real trouble. He would have given you more help, if he ___ (not be) so busy.

3. It is high time that we ___ (take) firm measures to protect our environment.

4. It was imperative that students ___ (finish) their papers before July 1st.

5. They demanded that the right to vote ___ (give) to every adult person.There was a mistake on my paycheck. I _____(receive) $10 more.I would rather he ____ ( buy) the house next year. The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we ___ (meet) them before.

9. Should she come tomorrow, I ___ take her to the museum.

[A] can [B] will [C] would [D] must

10. If we ___ everything ready by now, we should be having a terrible time tomorrow.

[A] hadn’t got [B] didn’t get [C] wouldn’t have got [D] wouldn’t get

Key:

1. would have been 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句

2. had not been 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的从句

3. took It is high time +过去式的虚拟形式

4. should finish/finish It was imperative that+动词原形的虚拟形式

5. be given demand所接宾语从句用动词原形的虚拟形式

6. should have received 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句,表示“本应该收到”而实际上没有。

7. bought would rather后接宾语从句,从句用过去式表示虚拟语气。

8. had met as if 所引导的从句用过去完成式表示虚拟语气。

9. C 与将来事实相反的虚拟语气的主句。

10. A 从句与现在事实相反,但本身已经是现在完成时(从by now可以看出),所以变为过去完成时。

结束语:

掌握语法题的要诀在于1)牢记上述表格;2)分清楚题目属于哪种具体情况;3)熟练套用正确形式;4)最后再检查一下是否应作必要的改动:如是否被动,三人称动词后加s,动词的不规则变化等。在理解上述表格的适用条件后,再通过大量作题来巩固,及时纠正出现的错误,我们一定能攻克语法难题,在语法部分得到一个理想的分数!

____…., …..

leave me _worrying__ (worry)

Leave the book _damaged__ (damage)

Enable me to solve the problem .

Enable the problem to be solved

I would rather not go with you.

I would rather I didn’t go with you.

It’s time it _was done_ (do) immediately.

It’s time to do it immediately.

He acted as if the book had been written (write) by him.

Command, demand

The order which/that is given by my boss is hard to carry out.

The order that the task should be finished (finish) today is hard to carry out.

1. Studies have shown ___ teenagers often suffer from depression.

A. that B. which C. in which D. in that

2. ____ driving around all day looking for somewhere to park, why don’t you take a bus to town?

A. In spite of B. Rather than

C. In place of D. other than

He hasn’t read one book _other than__ novels.

He has read no book other than novels.

3. In his composition there were no other errors ___ a few misspelled words.

A. except B. besides C. than D. beside

4. In deciding ___ a course of action, the candidates tried to estimate its likely impact on the voters.

A. how to pursue B. whether to pursue

C. how pursuing D. whether pursuing

5. The kids are ___ be hungry when they get home—they always are.

A. obliged to B. bound to C. desired to D. motivated to

6. It is said the conference is ____ (hold) in this hall next month. Is to be held

7. Little did they realize that they had made_ (make) an important discovery in science.

8. A life lived (live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed.

9. They proposed that the chance (that is available to them) be explained____ (explain) in detail.

10. (They are afraid that) everything well prepared (prepare), they may still lose the game.

11. While compelled (compel) to make the decision in a hurry, he made the right choice.

12. He is said/known/reported to have made (make) a lot of money before he was thirty years old.

He is said to take the job next week.

He is said to have taken the job last week.

I find him to have made a lot of money…

He is found to have made…

He said he had made

13. He would like to buy a used_ (use) car instead of a new one.

14. Having been deprived of all his money, he had to find a job to support himself.

15. How can you explain the phenomenon that occurs (occur) again and again in our daily life?
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