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第一卷滑铁卢 第17章我们应当承认滑铁卢好吗?

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CHAPTER XVII IS WATERLOO TO BE CONSIDERED GOOD?



There exists a very respectable liberal school which does not hate Waterloo. We do not belong to it. To us, Waterloo is but the stupefied date of liberty. That such an eagle should emerge from such an egg is certainly unexpected.

If one places one's self at the culminating point of view of the question, Waterloo is intentionally a counter-revolutionary victory. It is Europe against France; it is Petersburg, Berlin, and Vienna against Paris; it is the statu quo against the initiative; it is the 14th of July, 1789, attacked through the 20th of March, 1815; it is the monarchies clearing the decks in opposition to the indomitable French rioting. The final extinction of that vast people which had been in eruption for twenty-six years--such was the dream. The solidarity of the Brunswicks, the Nassaus, the Romanoffs, the Hohenzollerns, the Hapsburgs with the Bourbons. Waterloo bears divine right on its crupper. It is true, that the Empire having been despotic, the kingdom by the natural reaction of things, was forced to be liberal, and that a constitutional order was the unwilling result of Waterloo, to the great regret of the conquerors. It is because revolution cannot be really conquered, and that being providential and absolutely fatal, it is always cropping up afresh: before Waterloo, in Bonaparte overthrowing the old thrones; after Waterloo, in Louis XVIII. granting and conforming to the charter. Bonaparte places a postilion on the throne of Naples, and a sergeant on the throne of Sweden, employing inequality to demonstrate equality; Louis XVIII. at Saint-Ouen countersigns the declaration of the rights of man. If you wish to gain an idea of what revolution is, call it Progress; and if you wish to acquire an idea of the nature of progress, call it To-morrow. To-morrow fulfils its work irresistibly, and it is already fulfilling it to-day. It always reaches its goal strangely. It employs Wellington to make of Foy, who was only a soldier, an orator. Foy falls at Hougomont and rises again in the tribune. Thus does progress proceed. There is no such thing as a bad tool for that workman. It does not become disconcerted, but adjusts to its divine work the man who has bestridden the Alps, and the good old tottering invalid of Father Elysee. It makes use of the gouty man as well as of the conqueror; of the conqueror without, of the gouty man within. Waterloo, by cutting short the demolition of European thrones by the sword, had no other effect than to cause the revolutionary work to be continued in another direction. The slashers have finished; it was the turn of the thinkers. The century that Waterloo was intended to arrest has pursued its march. That sinister victory was vanquished by liberty.

In short, and incontestably, that which triumphed at Waterloo; that which smiled in Wellington's rear; that which brought him all the marshals' staffs of Europe, including, it is said, the staff of a marshal of France; that which joyously trundled the barrows full of bones to erect the knoll of the lion; that which triumphantly inscribed on that pedestal the date "June 18, 1815"; that which encouraged Blucher, as he put the flying army to the sword; that which, from the heights of the plateau of Mont-Saint-Jean, hovered over France as over its prey, was the counter-revolution. It was the counter-revolution which murmured that infamous word "dismemberment." On arriving in Paris, it beheld the crater close at hand; it felt those ashes which scorched its feet, and it changed its mind; it returned to the stammer of a charter.

Let us behold in Waterloo only that which is in Waterloo. Of intentional liberty there is none. The counter-revolution was involuntarily liberal, in the same manner as, by a corresponding phenomenon, Napoleon was involuntarily revolutionary. On the 18th of June, 1815, the mounted Robespierre was hurled from his saddle.





十七 我们应当承认滑铁卢好吗?




有个很可敬的自由派丝毫不恨滑铁卢。我们不属于那一派。我们认为滑铁卢只是自由骇然惊异的日子。那样的鹰会出自那样的卵,确实出人意料。

假使我们从最高处观察问题,就可以看出滑铁卢是一次有计划的反革命的胜利。是欧洲反抗法国,彼得堡、柏林和维也纳反抗巴黎,是现状反抗创举,是通过一八一五年三月二十日①向一七八九年七月十四日②进行的打击,是王国集团对法兰西不可驯服的运动的颠覆。总之,他们的梦想就是要扑灭这个爆发了二十六年的强大民族。是不伦瑞克、纳索、罗曼诺夫③、霍亨索伦④、哈布斯堡⑤和波旁⑥的联盟。滑铁卢是神权的伥鬼。的确,帝国既然专制,由于事物的自然反应,王国就必然是自由的了,因而有种不称心的立宪制度从滑铁卢产生出来了,使战胜者大为懊丧。那是因为革命力量不可能受到真正的挫败,天理如此,绝无幸免,革命力量迟早总要抬头,在滑铁卢之前,拿破仑推翻了各国的衰朽王朝,在滑铁卢之后,又出了个宣布服从宪章⑦的路易十八。波拿巴在那不勒斯王位上安插了一个御者,又在瑞典王位上安插了一个中士,在不平等中体现了平等;路易十八在圣旺副署了人权宣言。你要了解革命是什么吗?称它为进步就是;你要了解进步是什么吗?管它叫明天就是。明天一往直前地做它的工作,并且从今天起它已开始了。而且很奇怪,它从来不会不达到目的。富瓦⑧原是个军人,它却借了威灵顿的手使他成为一个雄辩家。富瓦在乌古蒙摔了交,却又在讲坛上抬了头。进步便是那样进行工作的。任何工具,到了那个工人的手里,总没有不好使的。它不感到为难,把横跨阿尔卑斯山的那个人和宫墙中的那个龙锺老病夫⑨都抓在手中,替它做那神圣的工作。它利用那个害足痛风的人,也同样利用那个征服者,利用征服者以对外,足痛风病者以对内。滑铁卢在断然制止武力毁灭王座的同时,却又从另一方面去继续它的革命工作,除此以外,它毫无作用。刀斧手的工作告终,思想家的工作开始。滑铁卢想阻挡时代前进,时代却从它头上跨越过去,继续它的路程。那种丑恶的胜利已被自由征服了。

①拿破仑从厄尔巴回来,进入巴黎的日子。

②巴黎人民攻破巴士底狱的日子。

③罗曼诺夫,俄国王室。

④霍亨索伦,德国王室。

⑤哈布斯堡,奥国王室。

⑥波旁,法国王室。

⑦路易十八迫于国内资产阶级自由主义思想的力量,不得不宣布服从宪章,以图缓和矛盾。

⑧富瓦(Foy),拿破仑部下的将军,在滑铁卢战役受伤,继在王朝复辟期间当议员。

⑨指拿破仑和路易十八。 

总之,无可否认,曾在滑铁卢获胜的,曾在威灵顿背后微笑的,曾把整个欧洲的大元帅权杖,据说法国大元帅的权杖也包括在内,送到他手里的,曾欢欣鼓舞地推着那些满是枯骨的土车去堆筑狮子墩的,曾趾高气扬在那基石上刻上一八一五年六月十八日那个日期的,曾鼓舞布吕歇尔去趁火打劫的,曾如同鹰犬从圣约翰山向下追击法兰西的,这些都是反革命。都是些阴谋进行无耻分散活动的反革命。他们到了巴黎以后就近观察了火山口,觉得余灰烫脚,便改变主意,回转头来支支吾吾地谈宪章。滑铁卢有什么我们就只能看见什么。自觉的自由,一点也没有。无意中反革命成了自由主义者,而拿破仑却成了革命者,真是无独有偶。一八一五年六月十八日,罗伯斯庇尔从马背上摔下来了。
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