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走进2012, 熊胆梦魇

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走进2012, 熊胆梦魇

作者: 选自腾讯<<视界>>,

译者: 爱尔兰都柏林大学 赖小琪

黑熊的智商和人类三岁的孩子很像。熊整个身体器官、神经系统是高等哺乳动物,和我们人的生理非常接近。我们会疼,它也知道怎么疼;我们焦虑,它们也有焦虑;我们难受,它们也难受,一模一样的。你忍不忍心给一个三岁的孩子打洞,日复一日地抽它的胆汁,直到它痛着死去?

Black bears’ intelligence is similar to that of a three-year-old child. They are higher mammals featured with advance body, organs and nervous systems, very physiologically close to human beings. We can feel pain, so can they; we can feel anxious, so can they; we can feel tough, so can they. There is nothing different between black bears and human beings physiologically. But do you dare to pierce a hole on the body of a three-year-old child and extracted bile from him day by day until he dies with dreadful pain?

亚洲黑熊分布在从伊朗到日本以及东南亚的整个亚洲地区,是世界八大种熊类之一. 它性情温顺,因为胸前长有新月形的金毛,又被称为月熊。

Asian black bears are dispersed from Iran to Japan to the whole Southeast Asia, ranking one of eight species of bears around the world. They have gentle temperament and due to a crescent shape of golden hair on the chest, they are also called moon bears.

1983年,朝鲜发明了活熊取胆的技术,养熊业因此产生。在此之前,人得到熊胆的惟一办法就是剖腹取胆,一命换一胆。在所有崇尚中医的国家,只有中国允许活熊取胆产业合法存在。

In 1983, North Korea invited the technology to extract gallbladder from a live bear and the bear farming industry started ever since. Prior to this, the only way to get bear gallbladder was to paunch the bear and get the gallbladder, resulting in the loss of bear lives. Of all the countries respectful for Chinese medicine, only China legally allows the existence of live bear bile.

目前全世界野外黑熊数量仅剩25000只,中国大概有16000只,像东北、四川、云南都是养熊大省。至少有7000到10000头黑熊被圈养,成为“胆熊”。

Currently, there are only 25,000 wild black bears remaining around the world. In China, there are approximately 16,000 living in Northeast China, Sichuan Province and Yunan Province. At least 7,000 to 10,000 black bears are raised in captivity. They are called “Bear Bile”

活熊取胆是这样一种酷刑:不取黑熊性命,却能让它痛苦得生不如死。用一根长10cm~20cm不等的金属或橡胶质地导管穿过腹壁直插胆囊。胆汁便顺着这根导管汩汩抽出,一般一天抽两次。为增加胆汁的流出量,熊场会用特制的针管抽扎进胆囊取胆汁。疼得惨嚎的熊会把自己抓得血肉模糊。甚至将内脏拉扯出来。

The technology of live bear bile is such a torture: it will not kill the bear, but will render him a pain in the living death. Workers use a 10cm to 20 cm catheter made of metal or rubber to pierce through abdominal wall into the gallbladder, making the bile streaming through the catheter into the container. It would be imposed on the bear twice a day. In order to increase the outflow of bile, workers in the bear field will draw bile from bears with a special needle. It causes such a tremendous pain that the screaming bears will scratch themselves bloodily even pull out the internal organs.

为了防止伤口愈合,人们会不时挑拨创口,为阻止黑熊自己拨开抽管,还会给它们穿上重达10公斤的铁马甲。

In order to prevent the wound healing, workers will stimulate it now and again. They also put a 10-kilogram iron vest on the bears to prevent them from tearing away the catheters.

1996年林业部下达了使用无管引流的通知——不再允许使用金属管或者铁马甲,改用肠衣在熊腹部开个肉管道直通胆囊进行引流。

In 1996, the Ministry of Forestry issued the use of non-tube drainage, which abandoned the use of metal catheter and iron vest and adopted casings to cut open the bear abdomen through its gallbladder for bile drainage.

然而黑熊的痛苦并未因此减少。无管引流在黑熊的腹壁留下一个长期的开放性创口,极易造成感染,不断流出的胆汁还会使黑熊的皮肤溃疡。没有准确插入胆囊的器具还会直刺腹腔,造成肝脏破裂。几乎所有的取胆熊,都有落下精神病根儿,不停摇晃脑袋,从此形成习惯不能自已。

However, the pain has not decreased the least for black bears. The non-tube drainage will leave a long-term open wound on the bear’s abdomen, which is easily infected. The ongoing outflow of bile will cause the bear body to fester. Worse still, the instruments inaccurately piercing into the gallbladder will stab into the abdomen and cause liver rupture. Almost all the “bile bears” have mental problems and shake their heads nonstop and can hardly control themselves.

因为黑熊取胆是早晚各一次,如果放养会降低效率。很多养熊户便将黑熊长期囚禁于狭窄的铁笼中,从它三岁开始取胆至死,历时十五至二十年。因为恶劣的养殖条件患上各种疾病的黑熊,最后结局就是在病痛中苟延残喘直到死亡。

As bile has to be taken from black bears twice a day, one in the morning and the other in the evening, if they are raised in the open air, it will lower the efficiency. Therefore, most raisers will keep them in the narrow iron cages for a long time, from the third year of their age, when their bile began being drawn, until their death. The whole time period ranges from 15 to 20 years. Because of the awfully poor living conditions, black bears will be infected with various diseases, suffering in the piercing pain until death.

抽出来的胆汁被制成各种熊胆粉、熊胆眼药水、熊胆痔疮膏等,现在连竹盐牙膏、御术熊胆洗面奶里都含熊胆了。一家成熟的熊场基本都会全产业链经营——养熊场隔壁即是酿酒的酒窖和机器,熊胆直接制成熊胆酒。酒既可直接兑上胆汁,也可以泡上熊胆粉。还能加点糖水制成一种保健口服液。

Bear bile can be made into bear powder, bear bile eye drops, bear bile hemorrhoids ointments, etc. Even now the bamboo salt toothpaste and royal bear bile face cream contain bear bile. A mature bear field will run a whole industrial chain management. Next to bear field is a wine cellar well equipped with machinery, making bear bile wine that can contain bear bile or bear bile powder. Bear bile can also be added to some sugar water that will be made into healthy oral solution.

被抽的是如此矜贵的胆汁,黑熊们吃的又是什么呢?玉米,就是黑熊最主要的口粮。大熊每天吃两顿,一顿吃一脸盆玉米糊糊。在东北,马路和院落里到处都晒满了玉米,算下来成本一月不过十几元钱。更吊诡的是,这么多黑熊承受巨痛,被迫舍命取胆,换来的却是其药用价值被故意人为夸大——目前至少有54种草药具有与熊胆相似的功效,包括常春藤、蒲公英、菊花、大黄等,没有任何疑难杂症非熊胆不可。

Bear bile is so precious, but what are bears eating every day? Corn is their staple food. A big bear dines twice a day, eating a basin of corn paste. In Northeast China, the roads and yards are all covered by corn drying in the sun. The total cost for raising a bear per month is no more than 20 yuan. More surprisingly, the functions of bear bile have been artificially inflated. Presently, there are at least 54 herbal medicines that have similar functions to bear bile, including Ivy League , dandelion, chrysanthemum, rhubarb, etc., there is no such a disease in the world that only needs bear bile to cure.

目前亚洲动物基金会通过给熊场补偿金的形式,销毁35个小养熊场的经营许可证。相对于7000多头胆熊来说,这只能说是救出一只算一只。在救助中心,黑熊要从如何走路、攀爬学起,慢慢开始重新做熊。据工作人员观察,通常15到20只熊会形成一个相对稳固的群体。时间长了,三三两两的会更亲密:一起吃饭和玩耍。天凉了,睡觉还会搂在一起呢。这一切,你会不会觉得有些熟悉?

In present, the Animal Asia Foundation, by taking the form of giving compensations to bear field, destroyed licenses of 35 small bear fields, trying to save as many bears as possible among the 7000 raised bears. In the rescue center, bears are learning how to walk and how to climb, slowly returning to their normal life. According to the workers’ observation, normally 15 to 20 bears will from a relatively stable group and with time passing by, they will be in two or three intimately, eating and playing together. When the weather becomes cold, they will also hug each other to sleep. Don’t you feel acquainted with all these?
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