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podium/['pəudiəm]/ n. 墩座, 矮隔墙, 指挥台 ...

雅思阅读基本功难句过关:分词

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1. A homeowner can get hurt trying to use the wrong kind of extinguisher on an electrical fire.

2. Bolenciecwcz was staring at the floor, trying to think, his huge hands rubbing together, his face red.

3. Facing the Atlantic, it is on the northeastern coast of the United States, and most of the city is built on islands.

4. He sat in front of them, dressed in a plain, ill-fitting suit, never moving, his dusty face masking his age.

5. Freed from TV, forced to find their activities, they might take a ride together to watch the sunset.

6. Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed in England and Wales today, maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses.

7. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty he was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, France, and English.

8. The materials used – copper, stainless steel, concrete and glass- give the building a striking beauty.

9. After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.

10. But at least they would distinguish the organizations entitled to a continuing voice in the dialogue with the research community about the rights of animals in research from the organizations that deserve no say.

11. Registering for classes, becoming familiar with the buildings on campus, buying books, adding and dropping classes, and paying fees are confusing for everyone.

12. Spending all their time working to a rigid curriculum, the passing of examinations by their pupils gradually became the whole object of their working life.

13. Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful, I applied, fearing as I did so, that without a degree and with no experience in teaching my chances of getting the job were slim.

14. They also bring together in one display a group of object drawn from various parts of the museum in an effort to represent the whole life-style of a region or a historical period.

15. The problem is how museums can continue to serve as storehouses for treasures while encouraging public to enjoy visiting them.



1.

A homeowner can get hurt trying to use the wrong kind of extinguisher on an electrical fire.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:can get。句子主干是:A homeowner can get hurt。trying to use the wrong kind of extinguisher on an electrical fire是一个现在分词结构,在句中作条件状语,修饰谓语动词. Try to do something是一个固定用法,表示“试图,试着做某事” 。

翻译

如果业主在电气火灾中使用了错误的灭火器,可能会受伤。

2.

Bolenciecwcz was staring at the floor, trying to think, his huge hands rubbing together, his face red.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:was staring。trying to think是一个现在分词短语作伴随方式状语,表示主语Bolenciecwcz在staring的同时还在trying to think。同时,后面的两个独立主格结构his huge hands rubbing together和his face red也是伴随方式状语。

翻译

伯伦西维茨盯着地面,试图思考,他搓着大大的双手,脸色通红。

3.



Facing the Atlantic, it is on the northeastern coast of the United States, and most of the city is built on islands.

结构

全句有2个谓语动词:is和is built。整个句子由两个完整的单句组成。句首的现在分词短语Facing the Atlantic在句子中作方式状语。

翻译

它面临大西洋,坐落于美国的东北海岸线,其城市的大部分建设在岛屿上。

4.

He sat in front of them, dressed in a plain, ill-fitting suit, never moving, his dusty face masking his age.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:sat。句子主干是:He sat in front of them。dressed in a plain, ill-fitting suit是过去分词短语作伴随状语,而never moving是现在分词短语作伴随状语,表示主语在sat时的伴随状态。同样,独立主格结构his dusty face masking his age也是伴随状语。

翻译

他坐在他们前面,穿这一身朴素的不合身的衣服,纹丝不动,满面的风尘遮住了他的实际年龄。

5.

Freed from TV, forced to find their activities, they might take a ride together to watch the sunset.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:might take。句子主干为:they might take a ride。Freed from TV和forced to find their activities是两个过去分词短语,在句中作条件状语。

翻译

如果不看电视又不得不另找些活动,他们可能会一起骑车去观日落。

6

Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed in England and Wales today, maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:are employed。句子主干为:Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed。其中,maintaining,renewing the old roofs 和thatching newer houses是三个并列的现在分词短语作伴随状语。As well as 表示并列。

翻译

目前有800名全职茅屋匠人在英格兰和威尔士工作,进行维修,翻新旧屋顶并且还盖新的茅屋顶。

7

He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty he was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, France, and English.

结构

全句有4个谓语动词:had been,had studied,was

和was。全句由三个并列的简单句组成。he was twenty是一个由by the time引导的时间状语从句。其中句末的现在分词短语speaking Swedish, Russian, German, France, and English 作伴随状语,对excellent linguist进行解释说明。

翻译

他从来没有上过中学或大学,但是他都是自学的。到20岁时,他已经是一个很熟练的化学家,一个优秀的语言学家,会说瑞典语,俄语,德语,法语和英语。

8.

The materials used – copper, stainless steel, concrete and glass- give the building a striking beauty.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:give。句子主干是:The materials give the building a striking beauty。其中,过去分词used作为后置定语修饰materials。现在分词striking作定语修饰beauty。破折号之间的并列的名词结构是materials的同位语,起补充说明作用。

翻译

使用的这些建材——铜,不锈钢,水泥和玻璃等——给这个建筑物增添了一种夺目的魅力。

9.

After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.

结构

全句有2个谓语动词:was和chose。句子主干为:eighty was a special birthday。Another decade是birthday的同位语,后面的lived or endured是过去分词作后置定语修饰decade。最后是as引导的状语从句。

翻译

毕竟,八十大寿是一个特殊的生日,是又生活了十年还是忍受了十年全凭你选择怎么去看待了。

10.

But at least they would distinguish the organizations entitled to a continuing voice in the dialogue with the research community about the rights of animals in research from the organizations that deserve no say.

结构 全句有2个谓语动词:would distinguish和deserve。句子主干是:they would distinguish the organizations…from the organizations that…。其中,entitled to a continuing voice是过去分词短语作为后置定语修饰第一个organizations。其后是一个复杂的介词短语,其主干是in the dialogue with…about…。that引导的定语从句修饰第二个organizations。并且,还应注意到整句话的主要结构:distinguish…from…。

翻译 但是,至少他们会分辨出哪些组织有资格与研究机构继续进行对话,就科研活动中的动物的权力发表意见,而哪些组织不应进行这种对话。

11.

Registering for classes, becoming familiar with the buildings on campus, buying books, adding and dropping classes, and paying fees are confusing for everyone.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:are。值得注意的是这一句话的主语是5个并列的动名词短语: Registering, becoming familiar, buying books, adding and dropping classes, and paying fees。并且,在系动词are后的confusing是一个现在分词形式,具有形容词的性质,意为“把人搞乱的,令人糊涂的”。

翻译

到班里注册,熟悉校园内的建筑,买书,选课还有交费——这些事把每个人都弄糊涂了。

12.

Spending all their time working to a rigid curriculum, the passing of examinations by their pupils gradually became the whole object of their working life.

结构 全句只有1谓语动词:became。句子主干为:the passing of examinations became the whole object。句首的现在分词短语Spending all their time working to a rigid curriculum在句子中作原因状语。注意the passing of examinations表示通过考试,其中examinations应该是passing的宾语,这种结构很常见,如:the hunting of the animal等。句子末尾的working是现在分词作为形容词修饰life,表示“工作生活”。

翻译

他们把自己的全部时间都用于按照苛刻的课程表进行授课,学生能通过考试已经渐渐变成他们自己授课工作的全部目标。

13.

Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful, I applied, fearing as I did so, that without a degree and with no experience in teaching my chances of getting the job were slim.

结构

全句有3个谓语动词:applied,did和were。其中主句的是:applied。句子主干为:I applied。句首的并列的现在分词短语Being very short of money和wanting to do something useful作原因状语,fearing 实际上是一个伴随状语,as I did so是as引导的一个时间状语从句。that引导的是fearing的宾语从句。

翻译

由于手头很缺钱,同时也想干点儿有用的事,我就提出了申请,但在申请时我也担心,自己没有文凭也没有教学经验,得到这份工作的希望是很渺茫的。

14.

They also bring together in one display a group of object drawn from various parts of the museum in an effort to represent the whole life-style of a region or a historical period.

结构

全句只有1个谓语动词:bring。句子主干为:They also bring together a group of object。其中,过去分词短语drawn from various parts of the museum作为后置定语修饰a group of object。句子后半部分的介词短语in an effort to…是句子的目的状语。

翻译

他们还聚集了一批来自博物馆的各个部分的展品,放在一场展览中展出,力图展示代表了一个地区或一个历史时期的生活方式。

15.

The problem is how museums can continue to serve as storehouses for treasures while encouraging public to enjoy visiting them.

结构

全句有2个谓语动词:is和 can continue。句子主干为:The problem is how。how引导的是一个表语从句。其中,现在分词短语encouraging public to enjoy visiting them作为伴随状语,表示museums在continue的同时还能够encouraging。 .

翻译

问题是博物馆怎样既能起到珍品宝库的作用,同时又能公众乐于参观。
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