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阅读基本功难句——平行并列结构

本文属阅读资料
一、前言

阅读分为四个层次:词、句、段、章。同学们一般习惯于以词为单位阅读,所以遇到存在“生词”的句子就无从下手了。其实阅读的真正障碍并不在于“生词”,而在于“难句”,因为难句即使每个单词都认识,只要“结构”复杂,可能也读不懂。反之,一旦能够把握“结构”,就可以忽略生词,掌握大意,从而实现“无词阅读”的境界。为此,本人特意为广大同学制作了这一套“难句随身卡”(包括基础篇和提高篇)。

二、难句的构成

英语的难句=主句+从句+短语,不同于汉语的句子全是简单句,没有复杂句。如果把英语的难句比喻成大树,那么主句相当于树干,从句相当于树枝,而短语相当于叶子。只要把握主句,就可理解大意。相比之下,汉语的句子就好比是竹子,一节一节的。

因此,我们在理解英语难句的时候要学会“拆”——把复杂句拆成简单句来理解。也就是说,要学会抓住“树干”,拆掉“枝叶”。

三、如何“拆”

任何句子都必须有谓语动词,所以找到一个谓语动词就可以拆下来一个句子。因此,理解难句的基本步骤是:1)识别出有哪几个谓语动词;2)找出主句的谓语动词,先理解主句;3)再去理解从句和短语。

四、符号说明

1.谓语动词用黑体的斜体字表示,例如:Everyone should know …。

2.从句的引导词用方框表示,例如:where the nearest fire alarm box is located。

3.从句用横线表示,例如:where the nearest fire alarm box is located,表示where引导的从句。

4.插入语成分用括号表示,例如:Keeping your head, (instead of crowding and pushing to get to an exit), may make the difference between…

第一章 平行并列结构

本章难句列表

1.Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are.

2.The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities is culturally influenced.

3. I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her.

4.Keeping your head, instead of crowding and pushing to get to an exit, may make the difference between life and death when fire breaks out.

5.Neither friends nor family can convince phobic people that most animals are harmless, that thousands of travelers fly safely everyday, and millions of people ride safely in elevators several times each day.

6.Millions of people travel about the country by rail, by bus, or by automobile, or drive to and from their places of work and their homes.

7.Here we have a little child, without knowledge or experience; there a grown-up person with fully developed mental powers.

8. There are relay races in running and swimming in summer, and relay in skiing in winter.

9.But we remember with far greater pain that we did not see that beauty when it flowered, that we failed to respond with love when it was tendered.

10.This is not an easy lesson to learn, especially when we are young and think that the world is ours to command, that whatever we desire with the full force of our passionate being can be ours.

11.More than three million people live in inner London, and nearly five million people live in the surrounding suburban area, which is made up of formerly separate villages that have merged to form what is now called outer London.

12.The journey and the stay are by definition outside the normal places of residence and work, and are of short-term and temporary nature, and there is a clear intention to return home within a relatively short period of time.

13.The limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

14.We have tried to isolate some of the key factors that govern service quality, and offer examples of organizations that manage service well and of some that manage it poorly.

15.Human beings have distinguished themselves from other animals, and in doing so ensured their survival, by the ability to observe and understand their environment and then either to adapt to that environment or to control and adapt it to their own needs.



难句分析:

1.Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are.

结构:本句有三个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为should know,其余两个都是由where引导的并列宾语从句。本句可以拆分为:

1) Everyone should know.

2) Where the nearest fire alarm box is located.

3) Where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are.

翻译:每个人都应该知道最近的火灾报警箱的位置,以及安全出口、安全梯及防火门位于何处。



2.The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities is culturally influenced.

结构:本句有2个谓语动词,其中第二个is influenced是主句的谓语动词,主干是The way is culturally influenced。第一个is used是定语从句的谓语动词,但是该定语从句省略了引导词。定语从句中三个并列的不定式短语动词to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities共同作为is used的目的状语。本句可以拆分为:

1) The way is culturally influenced.

2) Space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities.

翻译:怎样利用空间来获得个人隐私、建造家园以及设计城市都会受到文化的影响。



3. I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her.

结构:本句有5个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为wanted。was和thought分别属于两个由that引导的并列宾语从句。而owed和was going为两个并列的谓语动词,共同主语为England。England这句话前面为了避免重复而省略了宾语从句的引导词that,实际上是thought的宾语从句。本句可以拆分为:

1) I wanted her to know.

2) That my heart was with her.

3) That I thought.

4) (That) England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her.

翻译:我想让她知道我的心陪伴着她,而且我认为英国欠了她一大笔债,很快就会想念她。



4.Keeping your head, (instead of crowding and pushing to get to an exit), may make the difference between life and death when fire breaks out.

结构:本句有两个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为may make,其主语是动名词短语keeping your head。breaks out是when引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词。插入语(instead of…)中的crowding和pushing两个动名词是平行并列结构。本句可以拆分为:

1) Keeping your head may make the difference between life and death.

2) When fire breaks out.

翻译:当发生火灾时,保持头脑冷静,而不是向安全出口拥堵,能够带来生与死的不同结果。



5.Neither friends nor family can convince phobic people that most animals are harmless, that thousands of travelers fly safely everyday, and millions of people ride safely in elevators several times each day.

结构:本句有4个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为can convince,其主语为Neither friends nor family。其余三个谓语动词全是convince的宾语从句的谓语动词,其中最后一个从句前面省略了that。拆分为:

1) Neither friends nor family can convince phobic people.

2) That most animals are harmless.

3) That thousands of travelers fly safely everyday.

4) (That) millions of people ride … each day.

翻译:朋友及家庭成员都无法说服恐惧症患者,使其相信大多数动物都无害,无数旅行者每天安全地飞行,上百万人每天都多次安全地乘坐电梯。



6.Millions of people travel about the country by rail, by bus, or by automobile, or drive to and from their places of work and their homes.

结构:本句有2个谓语动词,都是并列的主句谓语动词。三个并列的by…, by…, by…作为travel的方式状语。本句可以拆分为:

1) Millions of people travel about the country by rail, by bus, or by automobile.

2) Millions of people drive to and from their places of work and their homes.

翻译:上百万人乘坐火车、公交车或者小汽车在周游全国,或者开车往返于工作地点和家庭处所之间。



7.Here we have a little child, without knowledge or experience; there a grown-up person with fully developed mental powers.

结构:本句只有一个谓语动词have。here…there属于平行并列结构,表示两个事物的对比状态,相当于the one …, the other …。

翻译:一方是一个没有任何知识或者经验的小孩,另一方是一个有着健全发展的智力的成年人。



8. There are relay races in running and swimming in summer, and relay in skiing in winter.

结构:本句只有一个there be句型。relay races和relay并列作为主语。本句可以拆分为:

1) There are relay races in running … in summer.

2) There are relay in skiing in winter.

翻译:夏季有赛跑和游泳赛接力赛,冬季有滑雪比赛。



9.But we remember (with far greater pain) that we did not see that beauty when it flowered, that we failed to respond with love when it was tendered.

结构:本句有5个谓语动词,其中remember是主句的谓语动词,被(with far greater pain)分隔了两个并列的宾语从句that we did not see…和that we failed to…。本句可以拆分为:

1) But we remember with far greater pain.

2) That we did not see that beauty.

3) When it flowered.

4) That we failed to respond with love.

5) When it was tendered.

翻译:但是我们更加痛苦地回忆着,当花儿开放时我们没有看到她的美丽,在别人给予我们爱的时候也没有用爱来做出回报。



10.This is not an easy lesson to learn, especially when we are young and think that the world is ours to command, that whatever we desire (with the full force of our passionate being) can be ours.

结构:本句有6个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为is。think后面有两个并列的由that引导的宾语从句,而第二个宾语从句里面有一个由whatever引导的主语从句。(with the full force of our passionate being)分隔了主语从句和其谓语can be。being是动名词。本句可以拆分为:

1) This is not an easy lesson to learn.

2) Especially when we are young and think.

3) That the world is ours to command.

4) That whatever we desire can be ours.

翻译:这不是容易学会的一课,尤其是当我们还年轻,认为这个世界是由我们掌控,而且认为无论我们渴望得到什么,只要充满激情、全力以赴,就能实现。



11.More than three million people live in inner London, and nearly five million people live in the surrounding suburban area, which is made up of formerly separate villages that have merged to form what is now called outer London.

结构:本句有5个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为两个并列的live。which引导非限定性定语从句修suburban area;that引导定语从句修饰villages,而what引导form的宾语从句。可以拆分为:

1) More than … people live in inner London.

2) And nearly five million people live in …area.

3) The area is made up of … villages.

4) The villages have merged to form.

5) What is now called outer London.

翻译:三百多万人住在伦敦市区,将近五百多万人住在周边郊区——该地区由以前分散的村庄组成,后来逐渐合并形成今天所谓的外部伦敦。



12.The journey and the stay are (by definition) outside the normal places of residence and work and are of short-term and temporary nature, and there is a clear intention to return home within a relatively short period of time.

结构:本句有三个并列的主句谓语动词。两个are的共同主语是the journey and the stay。(by definition)分割了are和表语outside the normal places。nature在这里表示“本质、性质”的意思。本句可以拆分为:

1) The journey and the stay are outside the normal places of residence and work.

2) The journey and the stay are of short-term and temporary nature.

3) There is a clear intention to return home …

翻译:(旅游中的)旅程和停留从定义上讲是在通常的居住和工作处所之外的,而且有一种短暂的性质。在短期之内,还要有一个明确的回家的意图。



13.The limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

结构:本句有3个谓语动词,其中第二个are focused是主句的谓语动词。rather than意思是“而非”,其前后并列两个on引导的介词短语。拆分为:

1) The limited investments are … focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills.

2) The investments are made in training workers.

3) The skills make it possible to absorb new technologies.

翻译:用于培训工人的有限投资也被集中用在训练完成下一个工作的必要技能上,而非用在可以吸收新技术的基本技能培训上。



14.We have tried to isolate some of the key factors that govern service quality, and offer examples of organizations that manage service well and of some that manage it poorly.

结构:本句有4个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为have tried,不定式to后面并列两个动词isolate和offer。两个of并列作为examples的后置定语。of some指代的是of some organizations。本句可以拆分为:

1) We have tried to isolate some of the key factors. and offer examples of organizations and of some.

2) Factors govern service quality.

3) Organizations manage service well.

4) Organizations manage it poorly.

翻译:我们力图挑选出一些控制服务质量的关键因素,并且提供一些例子来说明某些机构把服务管理得很好,而有些却很差。



15. Human beings have distinguished themselves from other animals, and in doing so ensured their survival, by the ability to observe and understand their environment and then either to adapt to that environment or to control and adapt it to their own needs.

结构:本句只有2个谓语动词have distinguished和have ensured。主干是Human beings have distinguished themselves … and … ensured their survival。by引导的方式状语后面并列了多个动词不定式to observe and understand…/to adapt to…/to control and adapt it to…,作为ability的修饰成分。

翻译:人类已经将自己与其他动物区分开来,并且通过这样做来确保自己的生存,所依靠的就是通过观察和理解周围的环境,然后适应,控制并且改造该环境,使其适合自己需要的能力。
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