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mutilate/['mju:tileit]/ vt. 切断, 使残废, 使不完整 ...

阅读基本功难句——分隔结构

本文属阅读资料
1. Evening had now come, the last of Adolf Hitler’s life.

2. We live in a time when, more than ever before in history, people are moving about.

3. Several neighbors hope to find safety in the only bomb shelter on their street when an announcement comes over the radio that enemy missiles are approaching.

4. The willingness to recognize the value of these newer “unscientific” ways of doing science may be another instance of the human ability to adapt and survive, of which we spoke earlier.

5. It is an activity you turn to for pleasure, not something that you have to do, like helping with the dishes.

6. The tour races of France and Italy, held each year, cover more than 2,000 miles.

7. While I was waiting to enter university, I saw advertised in a local newspaper a teaching post at a school in a suburb of London about ten miles from where I lived.

8. The second aspect is the application by all members of society from the government official to the ordinary citizen, of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.

9. I launched into a variation of the speech I had made for years, about how excessive tax rates can take away the incentive to produce, and how cutting taxes can generate growth.

10. Even his critics say the Ames test – his simple, inexpensive laboratory procedure that helps determine whether a substance might cause cancer – is a remarkable achievement.

11. The cessation(停止) of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body when there is irrefutable evidence that biological death is imminent(即将来临的) is the decision of the patient and/or her immediate family.

12. Although her characters were portrayed(描绘) in many settings and situations, they all reflected, by the often tragic outcome of their lives, her profound conviction that no human could be happy if that happiness was rooted in the wretchedness(悲伤,痛苦) of another.

13. I plan to see her soon in England, though not, she reminded me, again at 10 Downing Street.



1. Evening had now come, (the last of Adolf Hitler’s life).

结构:只有1个谓语动词:had come,分隔了主语evening和它的同位语(the last of Adolf Hitler’s life)。(the last of Adolf Hitler’s life)由于较长,所以放在了后面。本句的原型是:Evening, (the last of Adolf Hitler’s life), had now come.

翻译:阿道夫.希特勒生命中的最后一个夜晚已经来临了。



2. We live in a time when, (more than ever before in history), people are moving about.

结构:共有2个谓语动词,主句的是live。(more than ever before in history)分隔了定语从句的引导词when和people are moving about。拆分为:

1) We live in a time.

2) In a time people are moving about (more than ever before in history).

翻译:在我们生活的时代中,人们四处奔波的程度远远超过历史上的任何时期。



3. Several neighbors hope to find safety in the only bomb shelter on their street when an announcement comes over the radio that enemy missiles are approaching.

结构:共有3个谓语动词,主句的是hope。that引导的是an announcement的同位语从句,原型是an announcement that enemy missiles are approaching comes over the radio。但是,由于谓语动词太短,造成头重脚轻,所以同位语从句被放到了后面。拆分为:

1) Several neighbors hope to find … on their street.

2) When an announcement comes over the radio.

3) That enemy missiles are approaching.

翻译:当电台里面宣布敌人的导弹袭来的时候,有几个邻居希望能在街上唯一的避弹所里找到藏身之处。



4. The willingness to recognize the value of these newer “unscientific” ways of doing science may be another instance of the human ability to adapt and survive, of which we spoke earlier.

结构:共有2个谓语动词,主句的是may be。主干是The willingness…may be another instance…。of which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰the human ability,被to adapt and survive分隔。

1) The willingness to recognize the value of these newer “unscientific” ways of doing science may be another instance of the human ability to adapt and survive.

2) We spoke of the human ability.

翻译:认识到从事科学工作的一些更新颖的、“非科学”方法的价值的愿望,也许是我们早先提到过的人类所具有的适应能力和生存能力的另一个例子。



5. It is an activity you turn to for pleasure, not something that you have to do, like helping with the dishes.

结构:共有3个谓语动词,主句的是is。主干为It is an activity…, not something…。 you turn to for pleasure是一个省略了that的定语从句,修饰activity。修饰something的定语从句that you have to do分隔了something和它的另一个定语like helping with the dishes。拆分为:

1) It is an activity.

2) You turn to the activity for pleasure.

3) You have to do something.

翻译:这是一种你寻求快乐的活动,而非像帮人刷盘子那样的一些你不得不作的事情。



6. The tour races of France and Italy, (held each year), cover more than 2,000 miles.

结构:只有1个谓语动词。过去分词(held each year)作为the tour races的定语,被另一个定语of France and Italy分隔。当一个名词或代词后面同时接有两个以上的定语,或者名词或代词后面的定语被其他成分(例如状语,插入语,同位语等)隔开时,称为“分割定语”。例如:The man in old age who can see his life in this way will not suffer from the pain of death. in old age分隔了the man的定语从句。

翻译:环法国和意大利的巡回赛每年举行,其行程长达2,000多英里。



7. While I was waiting to enter university, I saw (advertised in a local newspaper) a teaching post at a school in a suburb of London about ten miles from where I lived.

结构:共有3个谓语动词,主句的是saw。主句的原型是I saw a teaching post (advertised in a local newspaper) at a school in a suburb of London…。(advertised in a local newspaper)也是a teaching post的定语,但是分隔了saw和a teaching post。之所以把(advertised in a local newspaper)提到a teaching post之前,是因为主句的原型中,a teaching post的后置定语太长,容易造成理解上的混乱。

翻译:当我等待进入大学期间,我看到当地的一家报纸上登着一个教师职位的招聘广告,其所在的学校位于伦敦郊区,而那个地方离我的住处有大约10英里的路程。



8. The second aspect is the application (by all members of society from the government official to the ordinary citizen), of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.

结构:共有2个谓语动词,主句的是is。(by all members of society from the government official to the ordinary citizen)分隔了the application和它的定语of the special methods…。that引导的定语从句修饰the special methods。拆分为:

1) The second aspect is the application…of the special methods of thought and action.

2) Scientists use the special methods of thought and action in their work.

翻译:第二个方面是社会的全体成员,从政府官员到普通公民,都要使用科学家在他们的工作中所使用的那些特殊的思考和行动的方法。



9. I launched into a variation of the speech I had made for years, about how excessive tax rates can take away the incentive to produce, and how cutting taxes can generate growth.

结构:共有4个谓语动词,主句的是launched into。I had made for years是省略了that的定语从句,分隔了the speech和about。about后面是两个并列的宾语从句。拆分为:

1) I launched into a variation of the speech about...

2) I had made the speech for years.

3) How excessive tax rates can take away the incentive to produce.

4) How cutting taxes can generate growth.

翻译:我做了一次与几年前内容不同的演讲,谈的是关于过高的税率会如何挫伤生产的积极性,以及减税如何能够促进发展。



10. Even his critics say the Ames test – his simple, inexpensive laboratory procedure that helps determine whether a substance might cause cancer – is a remarkable achievement.

结构:共有4个谓语动词,主句的是say。his simple, inexpensive laboratory procedure…是一个很长的同位语,分隔了宾语从句中的the Ames test和is a remarkable achievement。拆分为:

1) Even his critics say.

2) The Ames test is a remarkable achievement.

3) His simple, inexpensive laboratory procedure helps determine.

4) Whether a substance might cause cancer.

翻译:甚至连他的批评者都说爱姆兹试验是一项非凡的成就。这种试验是一种简单而又廉价的实验过程,却有助于确定某一种物质是否能够造成癌症。



11. The cessation(停止) of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body when there is irrefutable evidence that biological death is imminent(即将来临的) is the decision of the patient and/or her immediate family.

结构:共有3个谓语动词,主句的是第三个is。主干是The cessation…is the decision…,但是主语与系动词之间被长长的定语of the employment…所分隔。that引导evidence的同位语从句。拆分为:

1) The cessation of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body is the decision of the patient and/or her immediate family.

2) When there is irrefutable evidence.

3) That biological death is imminent.

翻译:当有确凿的证据证明病人即将进入生物死亡时,停止采用非常规手段来延长其生命的决定,应该由病人和(或)其直系亲属做出。



12. Although her characters were portrayed(描绘) in many settings and situations, they all reflected, (by the often tragic outcome of their lives), her profound conviction that no human could be happy if that happiness was rooted in the wretchedness(悲伤,痛苦) of another.

结构:共有4个谓语动词,主句的是reflected。(by the often tragic outcome of their lives)分隔了reflected和它的宾语her profound conviction。that引导了her profound conviction的同位语从句。拆分为:

1) Although her characters were portrayed(描绘) in many settings and situations.

2) The all reflected her profound conviction.

3) That no human could be happy.

4) If that happiness was rooted in the wretchedness of another.

翻译:虽然她描绘出的角色出现在各种背景和情节当中,但是由于这些角色经常都是以悲剧而告终,因此他们都能反映出她深深地相信,如果把快乐建立在别人的痛苦之上,那么没有人会真的快乐。



13. I plan to see her soon in England, though not, (she reminded me), again at 10 Downing Street.

结构:共有2个谓语动词,主句的是plan。(she reminded me)是分隔结构。Though实际上引导了一个省略的让步状语从句,其原型是though (it will) not (be) again at 10 Downing Street。拆分为:

1) I plan to see her soon in England.

2) Though (it will) not (be) again at 10 Downing Street.

3) She reminded me.

翻译:我打算很快在英国见到她,虽然她提醒我地点将不再是在唐宁街10号了。
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