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中学生英语学习常见错误--动词

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中学生英语学习常见错误--动词

[误] She laid down and soon fell asleep.

[正] She lay down and soon fell asleep.

[析]考试中常出现的是易混动词lay放,lie躺,lie说谎。它们的过去时、过去分词和现在分词变化如下:

lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物动词)

lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物动词)

lie (说谎) lied, lied, lying

[误] Please rise your hand.

[正] Please raise your hand.

[析] rise 是不及物动词,其后不能接宾语,如:The sun rises in the east.而raise是及物动词。

[误] I like to swim very much, but I don't like swimming this afternoon.

[正] I like swimming very much, but I don't like to swim this afternoon.

[析] like作为"喜欢"讲时,可以接动名词也可以接不定式,但接动名词时多表达一种习惯性动作。而接不定式则侧重于表达一次性、特殊性的动作。

但要注意的是like 与would连用时则一定要接不定式,如:Would you like to go with me?再有一点要注意的是,

like作为介词"像"讲时,只能用分词作其宾语。

[误] Stop! Did you listen to a strange voice?

[正] Stop! Did you hear a strange voice?

[析] hear的侧重点是听到、听见什么,而listen to 的侧重点为听的倾向,如:listen! Do you hear someone calling help?这样的词还有look与see。

它们的侧重点也不同,look重于"看"的倾向,而see重于看见没看见。

[误] Did you watch some film recently?

[正] Did you see some film recently?

[析] 英语中see 与 watch 各有不同的用处,see用于看电影、剧目,而watch用作看电视和看球赛。

[误] Look. A beautiful lamp hanged from the ceiling.

[正] Look. A beautiful lamp hung from the ceiling.

[析] hang有两个含义,① "挂",它的过去时与过去分词是hung, hung;② "绞刑",这时它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词则为hanged, hanged。

[误] How long can I borrow this book?

[正] How long can I keep this book?

[析] "借"在英文中有三个词,① 借入,即borrow,如:May I borrow some books from the library?② 借出,如:I can lend my bike to you.③ 借多久要用keep,

因为borrow与lend都是截止性动词,而keep是延续性动词。如 How long can I keep it?

[误] We have won your class.

[正] We have beaten your class.

[析] win是及物动词,其后面的宾语应是比赛、战争、奖品、奖金。而beat的宾语,应是人、队、班级等等,如:We won the game.

[误] I left my key.

[正] I forgot my key.

[正] I left my key at home.

[析] leave是"丢下",其后一定要接地点状语,而forget其后不要接地点状语。

[误] Oh! It's raining outside. Please bring the rain coat with you.

[正] Oh! It's raining outside. Please take this rain coat with you.

[析] bring为"带来"如:Next time bring your little sister here.而take为"带走",fetch为"去某处取什么回来",

如:Please fetch some coffee for us要熟记的是在初中课文中与take

有关的词组,如: take away 拿走 take back 收回 take down 取下take off 脱下 take…out 拿出 take place 发生 take hold of 拿住 take part in 参加

take a seat 坐下take one's place 替代

take a look 看看 take one's turn 轮流 take a message 捎信 take care of 照看 take it easy 别着急take one's time 慢慢来 take one's temperature 测量体温

[误] The policeman reached his gun.

[正] The policeman reached for his gun.

[析] reach作"到达"讲时是及物动词,如:I reached the hotel at 8∶30但作"伸手去拿",则要用reach for something。作为"到达"讲时还有arrive (in+大地方)

(at+较小的地方)和get to.

要注意的是与get有关的词组有: get back 回来 get in 收割 get into 进入 get off 下车 get on 上车 get out 出去 get up 起床 get to 到达

get ready for=be ready for get on well with 与人相处融洽 get 加比较级为变得如何,例如: get colder and colder.

[误] This dictionary spent me five dollars.

[正] This dictionary cost me five dollars.

[析] 英文中的"花费"有4个spend, cost, take 和 pay,其中spend 与pay所在句中的主语应为人,如:I spent two hours in doing my homework. I paid five dallars for the book.

而cost与take的主语则是事物,如:It takes me two years to finish this book.

[误] In summer I always sleep with the windows opened.

[正] In summer I always sleep with the windows open.

[正] I always sleep with the windows closed.

[析]要注意open是动词也是形容词,而close则要用其过去分词作形容词。

[误] Please wait a minute. I'm having on my clothes.

[正] Please wait a minute. I'm putting on my clothes.

[析]英语中的穿衣服要分状态,是什么样的穿着打扮,还是穿衣服的动作两类动词。表示穿着状态的词有have on, wear,在用法上have on不宜用进行时态,它多用一般时态,

如:She has on a new school dress. 而wear则多用进行时来表示状态,如:She is wearing a new sweater.在表示动作的词中put on是常用的一词。

dress用作动词当"穿衣"讲时其后宾语不应接衣物,

而要接人,如:My children were very young they couldn't dress themselves.在表示穿着状态时用其过去分词当形容词,如:He is dressed in white.

[误] My computer can't begin. Could you find someone to help me?

[正] My computer can't start. Could you find someone to help me?

[析] begin与start均可指"开始",而且常常可以互换,如:School begins (starts) at 8 a. m. 但是在两种情况下不宜用begin 而要用start,

① 当作机器开动、发动讲,如:My car can't start. There must be something wrong with it.② 作为"旅途开始"讲,

如:We should have to start early. There was a lot of traffic on the road.

[误] I'm very glad because I have founded my lost key.

[正] I'm very glad because I have found my lost key.

[析] find是不规则动词,它的过去式和过去分词是found, found,而found又是另外一词"建立",它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词是founded founded,

如:The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.

[误] Please. Let's speak in English.

[正] Please. Let's speak English.

[正] Please. Let's talk in English.

[误] Can you speak it English?

[正] Can you say it in English?

[析] 英文中"说"有4个常用词say, tell, speak, talk.其中不及物动词有speak和talk,

如:I want to talk with you.We are talking about the new film.而speak其后接语言时是及物动词,其他情况是不及物动词。say 与tell是及物动词,其中tell常用双宾语,

如:Tell us a story.但用于讲实话或谎话时也用单宾语。如: Tell the truth.

[误] Can you say Japanese from Chinese?

[正] Can you tell Japanese from Chinese?

[析] tell…from为固定词组,即分辨两者的不同。

[误] Excuse me, did I step on your foot?

[正] Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot?

[析] excuse me用于未打扰对方前,以提醒对方注意的用语,而sorry则是由于自己已做的事向对方道歉。

[误] Would you care for to swim with us?

[正] Would you care to swim with us?

[析] care for 后接不定式时,要省略for,或换用名词,如:Would you care for a cup of tea. care for 作"照顾"讲时与look after相同。在初中阶段学习与for有关的词组有:

ask for 请求 call for 接人,请人 care for 关心

go in for 从事 answer for 负责 look for 寻找

wait for 等待 send for 请人 pay for 付款

search for 寻找 leave for 去某地 prepare for 准备

thank somebody for something 为某事向某人道谢。

[误] Are you understanding it? Yes, I got to it.

[正] Do you understand it? Yes, I got it.

[析] understand这一词没有进行时态,如同感观动词love、hate… I got it 是美语,即I understood it。要记住get 作为"到达"讲时是不及物动词,

如:I'll get to the school at 8 a. m.初中范围常用与to有关的动词词组如下: belong to 属于 come to 苏醒 point to (at) 指着get to 到达 refer to 谈到 stick to 坚持

lead to 导致 turn to 翻到 look forward to 期望agree to 同意

[误] The meat has gone badly.

[正] The meat has gone bad.

[析] 英语中go, get, become, turn作为转变时,其后接形容词,这时这些动词应被看作系动词。

[误] The teacher said the earth moved around the sun.

[正] The teacher said the earth moves around the sun.

[析]如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,其宾语从句可以是任何时态。如果是过去时,则宾语从句中的时态应与之呼应。但地球围绕太阳转是不随时间而变化的客观事实

,所以还应用一般现在时态来表达。

[误] I'll come to see you as soon as I'll be back.

[正] I'll come to see you as soon as I am back.

[析] 在状语从句中要用一般时来表示将来,如:I should tell him when he came back.

[误] I want to know whether you come to my party tomorrow or not.

[正] I want to know whether you will come to my party tomorrow or not.

[析]在宾语从句中则要用将来时表示将来的动作。要注意的是如果宾语从句中仍有状语从句时,依然要用一般现在时表示将来,

如:I want to know if it rains tomorrow you'll come here or not.

[误] What did you do at eight last night?

[正] What were you doing at eight last night?

[析]在描述过去某一具体时刻的动作或从某时到某时一段时间内正在进行的动作要用过去进行时,如:I was washing clothes from eight till noon last Sunday

[误] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them, because I have seen it before.

[正] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them because I had seen it before.

[析]现在完成时与过去完成时的相同之处是其动作均开始于过去的某一点,它的差别在于该动作是截止到什么时候。如动作截止到现在用现在完成时;

如动作截止到过去,用过去完成时。

例如:I've learnt English for three years.(到现在为止)又如:Before I went to college, I had learnt English for three years.

(动作截止到上大学那时,即截止于过去)

[误] I'm feeling well now.

[正] I feel well now.

[析]瞬间动词有些无进行时态,它们是:表示思维状态的词:believe, feel, forget, imagine, know, mean, need, prefer, remember, understand, want

表示感情的动词:care, like, do like, love, mind, hate, fear 表示状态的词:belong, own 感观动词: feel, hear, see, smell, taste

[误] When have you done this work?

[正] When did you do this work?

[析] when提问的是一个时间点不可用于完成时态的问句中。

[误] This is our new English teacher. He has gone to many foreign countries.

[正] This is our new English teacher. He has been to many foreign countries.

[析] have gone to 是到某地去了,此人现在不在这里。have been to 是到过某地,现在此人在说话现场。

[误] I have borrowed this book for two weeks.

[正] I have kept this book for two weeks.

[析]截止性动词有完成时态,但不可和与表达一段时间的时间状语连用。如:When I got to the cinema the film had begun. 但要讲

When I got to the cinema the film had be on for five minutes 这样的用法还有buy, join, die, 如:I bought this book yesterday.

我昨天买的这本书。 I have had this book for two days. 这本书我已买了两天了。

I joined the club two years ago.两年前我加入了这个俱乐部。

I have been in this club for two years. 我加入这个俱乐部已两年了。

My father died five years ago. 我父亲是5年前去世的。

My father has been dead for five years. 我父亲已去世5年了。

[误] Have you understood the lessons?

[正] Do you understand the lessons?

[析] 有些动词不易用完成时态,它们是understand, think, believe, know (知道)

[误] It was said that the Second World War had broken out in 1939.

[误] It was said that the Second World War was broken out in 1939.

[正] It was said that the Second World War broke out in 1939.

[析]在讲述过去的历史事件时,总要用过去时而不要用完成时,而且happen, break out, take place作为发生讲时均没有被动语态。

[误] When I walked along the street. I happened to meet an old friend.

[正] When I was walking along the street I happened to meet an old friend.

[析]在一个长动作发生或进行的过程中,某一突然事件发生,这时长动作应用进行时(现在进行时或过去进行时),而突发性动作用一般时(一般现在时或一般过去时),

如:When my father is reading a newspaper the telephone rings.

[误] Please buy a book to me.

[正] Please buy me a book.

[正] Please buy a book for me.

[析]在接双宾语的动词后面的两个宾语,一个是直接宾语,一个是间接宾语,如:Buy me a book中me是间接宾语,而a book是直接宾语。

如果将直接宾语前置,其后应加for,其它加to

如: Tell me a story. Tell a story to me. Give me a book. Give a book to me.

[误] He was seen come into the book store.

[正] He was seen to come into the book store.

[析] 在主动语态中,有时可以加不带to的不定式作宾语,如:I saw him come into the book store.但如果变为被动语态时,则要将省略的to还原。

当然这些动词还可以加动名词作宾语,

如: I saw him coming into the book store, 如变为被动语态时,则没有变化。如:He was seen coming into the book store.
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