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24个保护视力的小技巧

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Prevent Blindness America, a nonprofit organization dedicated to vision issues, estimates that 50,000 people lose their sight needlessly every year and that 80 million Americans are at risk of eye diseases that can lead to low vision and even blindness.

The good news: The most common diseases -- age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), cataracts, glaucoma, and dry eye disease -- are all preventable to some extent. Read on to see (pun intended) how you can get Stealth Healthy protection for your peepers. Before we go any further, we have to tell you that the first step, if you smoke, is to stop. Smoking increases your risk of cataracts, glaucoma, dry eyes, and age-related macular degeneration.

1. Mix a cup of blueberries with a cup of yogurt for breakfast this morning.Blueberries are one of the richest fruit forms of antioxidants, and a study published inThe Archives of Ophthalmologyfound that women and men who ate the greatest amount of fruit were the least likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the leading cause of blindness in older people.

2. Spread bilberry jam on your morning toast.Or take a bilberry supplement every morning. The berries contain compounds called anthocyanosides, which may protect the retina against macular degeneration.

3. Have spinach twice a week.Could be a spinach quiche, steamed spinach, or maybe Tuscan spinach -- sautéed in some olive oil with garlic and raisins. Regardless, be sure to get your spinach. Studies find that lutein, a nutrient that is particularly abundant in spinach, may prevent age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. Ideally, get your lutein in combination with some form of fat (olive oil works great) for the best absorption.

4. Cook with red onions, not yellow.Red onions contain far more quercetin, an antioxidant that is thought to protect against cataracts.

5. Aim your car vents at your feet -- not your eyes.Dry, air-conditioned air will suck the moisture out of eyes like a sponge. Aim the vents in your car away from your eyes, or wear sunglasses as a shield. Dry eyes can be more than an inconvenience; serious dryness can lead tocorneal abrasions and even blindness if left untreated.

6. Move your computer screen to just below eye level.Your eyes will close slightly when you're staring at the computer, minimizing fluid evaporation and the risk of dry eye syndrome, says John Sheppard, M.D., who directs the ophthalmology residency program at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia.

7. Take a multivitamin every day.Make it a habit, like brushing your teeth. A major study suggested that if every American at risk for age-related macular degeneration took daily supplements of antioxidant vitamins and zinc, more than 300,000 people could avoid ARMD-associated vision loss over the next five years. Other studies find that women who took vitamin C supplements for at least 10 years were 77 percent less likely to show initial signs of cataracts than those who took no supplemental C. So take a multi with at least 150 mg vitamin C, or take a separate C supplement.

8. Walk at least four times a week.Some evidence suggests that regular exercise can reduce the intraocular pressure, or IOP, in people with glaucoma. In one study, glaucoma patients who walked briskly four times per week for 40 minutes lowered their IOP enough so they could stop taking medication for their condition. It's also possible -- although there's no proof yet -- that walking could also reduce your overall risk of developing glaucoma.

9. Eat fish twice a week.A study from Harvard researchers presented at the 2003 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology's annual meeting evaluated the diets of 32,470 women and found those who ate the least amount of fish (thus getting the least amount of omega-3 fatty acids) had the highest risk of dry eye syndrome. Even tuna fish (yes, the kind that comes in a can) protected against the syndrome. If you can't stand fish, or are worried about mercury consumption, try fish-oil supplements to get your omega-3s.

10. Twice a week, walk away from greasy or sweet snacks.A 2001 study found that people whose diets were high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in omega-6 fatty acids (found in many fat-filled snack foods like commercially prepared pie, cake, cookies, and potato chips) were significantly less likely to develop ARMD than those whose diets were high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, if your diet was high in omega-6 at all -- even if you still ate plenty of fish -- the protective effects of the omega-3 fatty acids disappeared.

11. Have sweet potatoes for dinner tonight.Since they are rich in vitamin A, these sweet spuds can help improve your night vision.

12. Turn down the heat in your house.Heat dries out the air, which, in turn, dries out your eyes. In the winter, you might also try adding some humidity with a humidifier or even bunching a lot of plants together in the room in which you spend the most time.

13. Wear sunglasses whenever you leave the house.When researchers examined the relationship between exposure to sunlight and cataracts or ARMD in Chesapeake Bay fishermen, they found that fishermen who protected their eyes from the harsh glare of the sun and its damaging UV rays were significantly less likely to develop these conditions than those who went bare-eyed. Wear the sunglasses even when it's not sunny out, says Dr. Sheppard. They protect your eyes from the drying effects of wind.

14. Wear a broad-brimmed hat along with your sunglasses.A wide-brimmed hat or cap will block roughly 50 percent of the UV radiation and reduce the UV radiation that may enter your eyes from above or around glasses.

15. Pick some Southern greens for dinner tonight.Because they are high in lutein and zeaxanthin, greens like collards and kale (delicious when lightly steamed with a splash of hot pepper vinegar) may reduce your risk of developing both cataracts and ARMD, and may even slow progression of these diseases once they've begun. Both have strong antioxidant properties, which may help repair some of the damage that contributes to both conditions.

16. Roast some fresh beets for an eye-saving side dish.Beets get their deep red color from phytochemicals called anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that protect the smaller blood vessels in your body, including those in your eyes.

17. Switch to "lite" salt or use spices and herbs instead of salt.Studies find that high-salt diets increase your risk of certain types of cataracts, so stay away from the salty stuff. And while you're de-salting your diet, don't forget the salt in processed foods. Check labels for "no-salt" or "no-sodium," or "low-salt" or "low-sodium" tags when buying canned and other prepared foods.

18. Dab an essential oil of jasmine, peppermint, or vanilla on your arm and sniff.Jasmine, says scent researcher Alan R. Hirsch, M.D., of the Chicago-based Smell and Taste Treatment Research Foundation, increases the beta waves in the frontal lobes of your brain, promoting wakefulness and enabling you to focus better and see things more acutely. All three scents stimulate the limbic system in your brain, which, in turn, stimulates the rods in your eyes, which help you see in dim light.

19. When you're working or reading, set your alarm to beep every 30 minutes.Use this as a reminder to look up and away from your computer or book to some distant point for 30 seconds. This helps prevent eye fatigue and eyestrain.

20. Check your blood pressure every month.You can do this yourself with a home blood pressure kit, at the doctor's office, or at the pharmacy. The two leading causes of blindness in the United States are high blood pressure and diabetes, both of which damage blood vessels.

21. Replace your mascara every three months and other eye makeup once a year.Eye makeupis a great repository for bacteria, which can easily be transferred to your eyes and cause infections.

22. Use eye makeup remover every night before going to bed.This prevents small pieces of mascara from winding up in your eye and possibly scratching your cornea.

23. Wear goggles when you're doing carpentry or even yard work.Debris in the eye can lead to corneal abrasions, which can ultimately damage your vision. Also use protective goggles when you're swimming to protect your eyes from the chlorine.

24. Use a fresh towel every time you wipe your face.Sharing face towels is a great way to get conjunctivitis, the infection also known as pinkeye.


为了防御美国的盲人问题,一个非赢利组织献身于视力问题,它预测每年5万人失去实力,8千万美国人站在导致弱视、失明的眼疾病边缘。

好消息是:很多疾病在一定程度上都有阻碍老年视网膜黄斑性病变、白内障、青光眼、干的眼疾病的可能性。继续读来了解你怎样使你的同辈人得到暗中的健康保护。在我们说得更多以前,我们必须告诉你:假如你抽烟,第一步是停止抽烟。抽烟增加你痪上的白内障、青光眼、干的眼疾病和老年视网膜黄斑性病变的危险性。

1 早餐食用一杯酸母乳和越桔的调配品。越桔是一种最富于抗氧化物的水果。一篇《眼科学档案馆≥出版的论文认为大量吃水果的男人和女人不容易渐渐患上老年视网膜黄斑病变(老年人失明的主要原因)。

2 在你的烤面包内摸上越桔的果酱。或者每天吃越桔补品。越桔是包括华氰氧化物的混合物,它可以防止网膜有斑点退化。

3 一星期吃两次菠菜,可能是菠菜汤、蒸菠菜或者用橄榄油、蒜和葡萄干炒的托斯菠菜。无论如何,确保你吃到菠菜。研究表明,叶黄素可以阻止老年人网膜黄斑性病变或白内障。

4 用红葱而不是黄葱炒菜.红葱包括栎精,一种被认定为抗白内障的抗氧化剂。

5 把你汽车的排气口对准你的脚—而不是你的眼睛。干燥空调的冷气体会从眼睛内吸出像海绵一样潮气。让汽车的排气口远离你的眼睛,或者戴上墨镜这个隔离罩。干燥的眼睛不仅仅是眼睛不舒服,假如过于干燥的眼睛不能治疗会引起视网膜磨损甚至失明。

6 把电脑屏幕移动到低于视平线的位置。弗吉尼亚州弗吉尼亚医学院的眼科学住院医生的领导John Shepperd说,当你凝视电脑时,你的眼睛轻微地闭合,减少了眼睛水分的蒸发和干眼睛综合病症的危害。

7 每天服用多种维生素。把吃维生素当成像刷牙一样的习惯。专业研究表明,假如患有老年人网膜黄斑性病的美国人每天服用抗氧化剂的维生素C和锌,3百万人在5年多内有可能避免视力衰退。其他研究表明服用10年以上维生素C的女性比有白内障初期迹象的未服其者少77%。所以服用含有至少150mg的维生素C的各种食物,或者单独服用维生素C的补品。

8 一星期至少散步4次。一些证据表明经常的运动可以降低病人的眼内压力或者青光眼。在研究中,青光眼病人们每天快速步行40分钟,他们完全降低了他们的IOP以至于他们能停止服用治疗青光眼所需的药品。虽然没有证据,但散步很有可能减少你青光眼的进一步发展风险。

9 一星期吃两次鱼。哈佛大学研究家在2003年建立了视力研究联盟,他们在眼科年度会议上评估了32470女士的饮食,发现食鱼量最少的人(那么得到最低量的欧米加-3脂肪酸)患干眼综合症的危险性最高。甚至连有鱼也防御这个综合症。假如你不能坚持吃鱼,或担心汞消费,试一试鱼油补品来弥补你的欧米加-3。

10 一星期两次远离脱脂或甜味小吃。研究表明食用欧米加-3多欧米加-6 少的人比食用欧米加-6多欧米加-3少的人患ARMD的可能性少。(发现许多脂肪酸食物,如准备好的派、蛋糕、小甜饼、土豆片。)假如你的吃的欧米加-6 很高—甚至假如你仍然吃鱼—欧米加-3的保护效果也会消失。

11 每天晚上吃甜土豆。因为甜土豆维生素A多,它们能帮助你提高夜间视力。

12 降低你室内温度。热量使空气干燥,接下来使你眼睛干燥。在冬天,你可以用湿润器增加房间湿度,或者甚至在你长时间呆的房间里大量摆放植物。

13 无论何时离开房子务必戴墨镜。当研究者在切萨比克湾调查渔民白内障或ARMD和暴露于阳光的关系后,他们发现渔民在烈日及其含有UV的光线下保护自己的眼睛,他们比凸眼睛的人患病率更少。博士Shepperd说甚至没有阳光也要戴眼镜。他们预防眼睛受干燥的风的影响。

14 宽边帽子和太阳镜一起戴。宽边帽子和头巾阻挡50%的太阳辐射,减少从镜片四周进入你眼睛的太阳辐射。

15 挑选一些南方植物作晚餐。因为绿色植物如羽衣甘蓝、荠蓝含有大量的叶黄素、玉米黄质(用一点热胡椒和醋稍微蒸一蒸香),它们可以减少你白内障、ARMD 的发展风险,假如你有了这种病,它们可以减少病的恶化。它们都有强烈的帮助修复危害机制、有助于健康的抗氧化剂的性能。

16 把烘甜菜根作为眼睛治疗食物。甜菜根因为称作花青素的植物化学物质变得通红,有强有力的抗氧化剂作用,能保护你体内的血管(包括眼睛)变得更小。

17 用清淡的盐或香料和草本植物来代替盐。研究表明含盐量高的食物在一定程度上增加你患白内障的危险性,所以远离盐味重物质。当你降低食物盐成分时,不要忘记在腌制食物中放盐。当买罐装食品或其他精致食品时,检查商标有无盐、钠标签或低盐、低钠标签。

18 在你的胳膊、鼻子上抹提炼的茉莉花油、薄荷油、香草油。最近的研究家,芝加哥味觉治疗研究中心M.D.Alan R.Hirsch,M.D.说茉莉能在你大脑的额叶边缘增加测试波,提高觉醒程度,使你注意力集中,看得更敏锐。这3种香味刺激你大脑的边缘系统,相反,刺激你眼睛中的杆状细胞,让你在黑暗中看到光明。

19 当你正工作或读书时,让你的闹钟30分钟响一次。用这个作暗示,30分钟内远离一次你的电脑或书向远处看。这样可以阻止你的眼睛过度疲劳或紧张。

20 每个月检验你的血压。在医生办公室或药店自己用血压工具检验。在美国失明的两个主要原因是高血压和糖尿病。两者都对血脉有危害。

21 每个月换一次你的睫毛膏,一年换一次你的其他眼睛化妆品。眼睛化妆品是细菌的最好贮藏室,细菌很容易被转移到你的眼睛里,导致眼睛发炎。

22 每晚在睡觉前用眼睛化妆品去除剂。这阻止小片睫毛膏进入你的眼睛,擦伤你的角膜。

23 当你干木活甚至院子活时戴护目镜。碎片在眼睛中会导致角膜擦伤,最终危害你的视力。当你游泳时用护眼镜来防止你的眼睛不受氯的危害。

24 每次洗脸用干净的毛巾。公用洗脸毛巾是导致结膜炎的主要途径,这种炎症是众所周知的“红眼病”。

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