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奥巴马宣誓就职 美国见证历史性时刻

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Obama Takes Office In Historic Moment

2009年1月21日

Barack Obama was sworn in Tuesday as the 44th president of the U.S. under sunny skies and before an ocean of humanity, calling on the nation to put aside greed, irresponsibility and 'our collective failure to make hard choices' -- and turn back the 'raging storms' of war and recession.

In an ambitious, 20-minute address, Mr. Obama sought to obliterate the divisions of conservatism and liberalism and remake American politics.

'Let it be said by our children's children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations,' Mr. Obama said.

Mr. Obama stood opposite the Lincoln Memorial where more than 45 years ago, Martin Luther King Jr. called upon the nation to judge people by the content of their character, not the color of their skin. Mr. Obama spent Monday celebrating Dr. King's birthday as a day of service, while street vendors sold memorabilia juxtaposing images of the two black leaders.

Shortly after noon local time, Mr. Obama placed his hand on the Bible once used by the last president from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, and swore to uphold and defend the Constitution.

Though he said he was 'mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors,' Mr. Obama didn't dwell on his own race but spoke of the colorful tapestry of 'a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus -- and nonbelievers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth.'

But he was clearly mindful of the moment, when the son of an Kenyan father who once herded goats attained the highest office in the land -- and the most powerful position in the world.

'Because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace,' he said.

He reminded the nation again and again of the nation he is inheriting, at war against 'those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents' and challenged at home by an economy that is devastating lives and shuddering businesses, by a health-care system that is draining the Treasury yet leaving too many uncared for, and by energy consumption that is warming the planet and an education system that is failing too many children.

Promising 'action, bold and swift,' he issued a stern warning to those who would oppose him. The arguments over the size and scope of government, the traditional divide between liberal and conservative, are over, he said.

'There are some who question the scale of our ambitions -- who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short. For they have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose, and necessity to courage. What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them -- that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works.'

Four years ago, George W. Bush dedicated his second inaugural address to an expansive promise to spread democracy throughout the world. His successor focused far more on the home front, and on an economic system that he intends to remake in the wake of scandal and collapse.

The free market's 'power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched,' he cautioned, 'but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of control -- and that a nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous. The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of our gross domestic product, but on the reach of our prosperity; on our ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart -- not out of charity, but because it is the surest route to our common good.'

Energized by the historic moment, hundreds of thousands of people turned this city's orderly grid of streets into a festive party scene. Under sunny skies and warmer-than-expected weather, Americans of all backgrounds streamed up from subway stations and thronged past parked buses, emergency vehicles and street vendors, and packed Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Mall.

Record numbers stretched from the foot of the Capitol, where Mr. Obama was sworn in, to the Lincoln Memorial, where the words of Lincoln's second inaugural address are etched, 'With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.'

The crowd may have reached two million people, one of the largest gatherings in Washington's history. Millions more watched across the U.S. and around the world, with outdoor video screens planned for public squares.

Little official business was expected Tuesday in Washington, although the Senate was expected to confirm some of Mr. Obama's cabinet appointments. The real work of the new president will begin Wednesday, Mr. Obama's first full day in office. Aides said one of the new president's first actions would be summoning his national security team to begin preparing for a 16-month withdrawal of combat forces from Iraq, one of the main promises of his two-year-long campaign for the presidency.

That is just one of the new policies symbolizing the change to come as Washington shifts from eight years of Republican rule under Mr. Bush. Within days, Mr. Obama also is expected to issue executive orders to begin closing the prison in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, one of the most controversial symbols of the Bush administration's war on terror; reversing Mr. Bush's restrictions on federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, and restoring funding for family-planning programs overseas.

On the economic front, Mr. Obama's administration is likely to soon issue regulations forcing recipients of Wall Street bailout funds to be more transparent with the money, an aide said. The most-ailing financial institutions won't be forced to lend immediately, but healthier banks will be under pressure to move money from their vaults into the economy. 'Transparency is going to make a big difference,' the aide said.

At the swearing-in ceremony, seated behind Mr. Obama, was his chosen cabinet, including Hillary Clinton, expected to be confirmed as secretary of state. Also behind him was his defeated election opponent, Arizona Sen. John McCain.

Chief Justice John Roberts administered the oath of office to Mr. Obama following the swearing in of his vice president, Joe Biden, by Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens.

Mr. Bush was there, too, departing immediately after the ceremony on a Marine chopper en route to Texas, where he will begin the next chapter of his life, as an ex-president.

The swearing-in was to be followed by a luncheon at the Capitol and a parade featuring high-school marching bands, drill teams and floats. The evening was to conclude with 10 official inaugural balls and countless unofficial parties.

Mr. Obama on Monday spoke the message he would deliver at his swearing-in: The time has come for a new culture of public service, as well as a new national unity after years of bitter partisan political division.

'Given the crisis that we're in and the hardships that so many people are going through, we can't allow any idle hands,' Mr. Obama said, taking a break from painting a dormitory at Sasha Bruce House, a shelter for homeless teens. 'Everybody's got to be involved. Everybody's going to have to pitch in, and I think the American people are ready for that.'

Throughout his campaign, Mr. Obama stressed that a nation that should have been rallied to service after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, instead drifted to complacency and consumerism. One of his first political promises was a $3.5 billion-a-year service plan to expand the AmeriCorps program established by President Bill Clinton by 250,000 slots, double the size of the Peace Corps by 2011, expand the Foreign Service, and create an Energy Corps to conduct renewable-energy and environmental-cleanup projects.

During appearances on Monday, Mr. Obama returned to the themes of unity and self-reliance.

'I am making a commitment to you as the next president, that we are going to make government work,' he told volunteers at Coolidge High. 'But I can't do it by myself. Michelle can't do it by herself. Government can only do so much. . . . If we're waiting for someone else to do something, it never gets done.'

Jonathan Weisman / Laura Meckler

奥巴马宣誓就职 美国见证历史性时刻
二中午,巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)在晴朗的天空之下,面对着如潮的人群宣誓就任美国第44任总统,他呼吁美国人摒弃贪婪、不负责任,以及共同的失误,做出艰难的选择,抵御战争和衰退的狂风骤雨。

在20分钟热情洋溢的演讲中,奥巴马希望消除保守主义和自由主义的分歧,重塑美国的政治。

奥巴马说,我们要让我们的子孙后代记住,在面临挑战的时候,我们没有屈服,我们没有逃避也没有犹豫,我们脚踏实地、心怀信仰,秉承了宝贵的自由权利并将其安全地交到了下一代的手中。

奥巴马在林肯纪念堂前宣誓就职。45年前,马丁•路德•金(Martin Luther King Jr.)也是在这里呼吁美国不以皮肤的颜色,而是以品格的优劣作为评判人的标准。周一,奥巴马参加了庆祝马丁•路德•金诞辰日的一系列公益活动,而街头小贩则在出售将这两位黑人领袖人物并列在一起的纪念画像。

当地时间正午过后不久,奥巴马将左手放在林肯总统曾使用过的《圣经》上,宣誓恪守和捍卫美国宪法。

尽管他说,他知道先辈们为了这个国家所作的牺牲,但他没有过多渲染自己的种族,而是谈到了这个国家有基督徒也有穆斯林,有犹太教徒也有印度教徒,同时也有非宗教信徒的丰富多彩的组成。他说,我们民族是由各种语言和文化塑造成的,我们吸取了这个星球上任何一个角落的有益成分。

但在这位肯尼亚放羊娃的儿子入主这片土地上的最高之巅,出掌世界上权力最大的职位时,他显然想到了这一时刻。

他说,正是因为我们曾品尝过内战和种族隔离的苦酒,并且在经历了这些黑色的篇章之后变得更加强大更加团结,因此我们毫不犹豫地相信一切仇恨终有一天都会成为过去,种族的界线不久就会消失,而且随着世界变得越来越小,我们相信终有一天人类共有的人性品德将会自动显现。在引领一个和平新时代的到来方面,美国必须发挥自己的作用。

他一再提醒美国人,他接手的这个国家正在与“那些企图通过恐怖主义或屠杀无辜平民达成目标的人”进行作战。国内面临着企业倒闭,生活窘迫的挑战;医疗体制让国家财政不堪重负,却仍有许多人得不到保障的挑战;能源消费让地球变暖和教育体制让许多孩子无法获得良好培养的挑战。

他承诺迅速大胆地采取行动,并对将会反对他的人发出了严厉的警告。他说,对政府的规模和责任范围的争论,自由派和保守派之间的传统分歧都已经结束了。

他说,有一些人质疑我们的野心是不是太大了,他们认为我们的体制承载不了太多的宏伟计划。他们是健忘的。他们已经忘了这个国家已经取得的成就;他们已经忘了当创造力与共同目标以及必要的勇气结合起来时,自由的美国人民所能发挥的能量。这些怀疑论者没有意识到的是,政治现实已经发生了变化,长期以来耗掉我们太多精力的陈腐政治论争已经不再适用。今天,我们的问题不在于政府的大小,而在于政府能否发挥作用。

四年前,布什(George W. Bush)在第二任期就职演说中承诺将民主带到全世界。他的继任者奥巴马则更多地关注国内,以及在诸多丑闻和破产事件后重建美国经济体系的计划。

奥巴马说,自由市场创造财富和宣扬自由的力量无可比拟,但这次危机提醒我们,如果不保持警惕,市场可能失去控制;一个只喜欢繁荣的国家不会持久繁荣。美国经济的成功一直以来所靠的不仅是国内生产总值的规模,还有经济繁荣所惠及的范围;依靠我们向每个愿意接受的人提供机会的能力──不是出于怜悯,而是因为那是实现共同利益的最可靠途径。

在这一历史性时刻,几十万人将华盛顿的整齐街道变成庆祝晚会场所。天气晴朗而且比预期的温暖,不同背景的美国人从地铁站涌出,经过停在一旁的公交车、救护车和摊贩,挤满了宾夕法尼亚大道和国家广场。

数不清的人布满了从奥巴马宣誓就职的国会山脚下一直到林肯纪念堂(Lincoln Memorial)。林肯第二次就职演说词就刻在林肯纪念堂的 上:“我们对任何人都不怀恶意,我们对任何人都抱好感,上帝让我们看到正确的事,我们就坚信这些正确的事,让我们继续奋斗,以完成我们正在进行的工作,去治疗国家的创伤,去照顾艰苦作战的志士和他的孤儿遗孀,尽力实现并珍惜在我们自己之间和我国与各国之间的公正和持久的和平。”

估计有两百万人参加了集会,是华盛顿历史上规模最大的一次。还有美国和全世界的数百万人通过公共广场设置的户外电视屏幕观观看了就职典礼。

周二华盛顿几乎没有安排任何公事,不过参议院计划批准奥巴马在国会的部分任命。新总统将于周三开始实际工作,那将是奥巴马在办公室度过的第一个全天。他的助手表示,新总统的第一个动作是召集国家安全团队开始准备在16个月内从伊拉克撤军,这也是他持续两年的竞选活动中的主要承诺之一。

这只是诸多新政策中的一项,这些新政策象征着在华盛顿结束布什(George W. Bush)为期八年的共和党统治后即将发生的变革。预计奥巴马将在短期内发布行政令,着手关闭古巴关塔那莫湾(Guantanamo Bay)的监狱,这是布什政府反恐战争行动最有争议的象征之一;他还将取消布什对将联邦资金用于胚胎干细胞研究的限制,并恢复对海外计划生育项目的资助。

一位助手说,在经济领域,奥巴马政府很可能会很快发布新法规,迫使华尔街接受了救助资金的机构在资金使用上更加透明。最困难的金融机构不会被迫立刻放贷,不过财务状况较好的银行将承受压力,把钱从保险库里转投到经济中。这位助手说,透明将带来很大的转变。

在就职典礼上,奥巴马挑选的内阁成员在他的后排就坐,其中包括即将获得国会确认的国务卿候选人希拉里•克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)。此外还有他的竞选对手、亚利桑那州共和党参议员麦凯恩(John McCain)。

美国最高法院首席大法官罗伯兹(John Roberts)主持了奥巴马的宣誓就职仪式。此前当选副总统拜登(Joe Biden)在最高法院法官史蒂文斯(John Paul Stevens)的主持下宣誓就职。

布什也出席了奥巴马就职典礼,仪式后随即离开,乘坐海军直升飞机到机场换机飞往德州。在那里,他将作为前总统开始人生的下一个篇章。

就职以后国会大厦将举办午宴,随后高中军乐队、仪仗队以及花车将举行庆祝游行。晚上还有十个官方就职舞会以及数不清的非正式晚会。

奥巴马周一早些时候谈到了他将在就职典礼上传达的讯息:在经历了多年痛苦的两党政治纷争之后,是时候建立新的公众服务观和国家团结观。

奥巴马说,考虑到我们所处的危机和如此多的人都在经历苦难,我们不能允许任何人袖手旁观。每一个人都要参与进来。每一个人都要努力投入。我认为美国人民对此做好了准备。奥巴马是在为无家可归少年设置的避难所Sasha Bruce House粉刷宿舍的间隙说这番话的。

在整个竞选过程中,奥巴马一直强调,在911恐怖袭击后,美国本该团结起来服务社会,相反,却滑向满足和享乐。他的首批政治承诺之一就是建立一个每年35亿美元的服务计划,把克林顿(Bill Clinton)总统建立的美国服务队(AmeriCorps)扩充25万人,到2011年前将和平队(Peace Corps)的规模增加一倍,扩大外交人员队伍,建立能源队(Energy Corps)从事可再生能源和环境清理项目。

在周一的讲话中,奥巴马再次谈到了团结和自力的主题。

他向柯立芝高中(Coolidge High)的志愿者说,我作为下一届总统向你们承诺,我们会让政府发挥作用。但我自己做不到这些。米歇尔自己也做不到。政府只能做到这么多了……如果我们只是坐等其他人做事,那就会一事无成。

Jonathan Weisman / Laura Meckler
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