Ⅰ.Reading Comprehension. (50 points, 2 points for each)
Directions: In this part of the test, there are five passages. Following each passage, there are five questions with four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and then write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet.
A boom economy coupled with dramatic changes in technology has created entirely new jobs and expanded opportunities in age-old professions. Many of these occupations —from computer programmers and Web page designers to chefs and police officers — don’t require a bachelor’s degree. Neither do many good jobs in the arts, crafts, skilled trades, construction, service industry, science, and health fields. Such jobs include: aircraft mechanic , cardiovascular technologist, electronic technician, law clerk, registered nurse , sales rep, secretary, travel agent …. This list goes on.
Jenna Novell, 21, is now full of career ideas thanks to a ten-month cosmetology program she attended at the Aveda Institute in Minneapolis. Although Novell got lots of career leads from salon recruiters at a career fair hosted by the institute, she didn’t meet any from California — where she wants to live. So she plans to find a job out West on her own, perhaps in television or maybe doing makeup for fashion shows. Or selling cosmetics. Or managing a salon. “You’d be surprised how many occupations there are in this field, ”she says.
High school students often don’t understand there are so many options available to them, says Farr, author of America’s Jobs for People Without a Four-Year Degree. “That’s a shame. People who are interested in various things really can earn a decent living even if they don’t want to go to college.”
It’s still true that people with more education, on average, earn more money. But 28% of workers without a four-year degree earn more than the average worker with a bachelor’s degree, according to Harlow G Unger, author of But if I Don’t Want to Go to College?, a guide to educational alternatives to college. And more and more computer-savvy young people are skipping college to join the high-tech revolution as computer network engineers, Internet entrepreneurs, and game designers.
Don’t get the wrong idea. This doesn’t mean you can waltz into a great job straight out of high school with no skills, training, or effort. To get a good job without a four-year degree, you still must have at least a solid high school education. “Even if you think you’re not going to college, you still need to pay attention, ”says Farr. “You need to know how to be part of a team, how to communicate effectively, how to learn.”
Questions 1-5 are based on Passage One.
1．Which of the following most likely requires a college degree?
D．A computer game designer.
2．What can be learnt from Novell’s story?
A．She has just found an interesting job in the West.
B．She believes there are lots of jobs for her in the West.
C．College degree is not that important in getting a job.
D．There are more job opportunities with help from recruiters.
3．Mr. Farr says “That’s a shame. People who are interested in …”. What does “that”refer to ?
A．Some people say high schools don’t produce good employees.
B．Some people without college degrees don’t do decent jobs.
C．Some high school students don’t want to further their education in college.
D．Some high school leavers don’t realize that there are lots of jobs for them.
4. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. People who don’t have a college degree may sometimes earn more than those who have.
B. It is impossible for high school graduates to have high-tech jobs no matter how bright they are.
C. Without proper training, one with only high school diploma may not get well-paid jobs.
D. One needs to be serious with his high school study though he may not expect to go to college.
5. The author’s purpose of writing this article is to show_______.
A. why college education is not as important as before
B. which kinds of people don’t need college degrees
C. how to get good jobs for those without college degrees
D. what job opportunities are provided in western cities
Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behavior is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.
The researchers studied the behavior of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behavior became markedly different.
In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it ) was enough to reduce resentment in a female capuchin.
The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group living species. Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone, and refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.
Questions 6-10 are based on Passage Two.
6. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by______.
A. posing a contrast
B. justifying an assumption
C. making a comparison
D. explaining a phenomenon
7. The statement “it is all too monkey” ( Paragraph 1 ) implies that______.
A. monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals
B. resenting unfairness is also monkeys’ nature
C. monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other
D. no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions
8. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are______.
A. more inclined to weigh what they get
B. attentive to researchers’ instructions
C. nice in both appearance and temperament
D. more generous than their male companions
9. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys______.
A. prefer grapes to cucumbers
B. can be taught to exchange things
C. will not be co-operative if feeling cheated
D. are unhappy when separated from others
10. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A. Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.
B. Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.
C. Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
D. Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.
The temperature of the Sun is over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the surface, but it rises to perhaps more than 16 million degrees at the center. The Sun is so much hotter than the Earth that matter can exist only as a gas except at the core. In the core of the Sun, the pressures are so great against the gases that, despite high temperature, there may be a small solid core. However, no one really knows, since the center of the Sun can never be directly observed.
Solar astronomers do know that the Sun is divided into five layers or zones. Starting at the outside and going down into the Sun, the zones are the corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, and finally the core. The first three zones are regarded as the Sun’s atmosphere. But since the Sun has no solid surface, it is hard to tell where the atmosphere ends and the main body of the Sun begins.
The Sun’s outermost layer begins about 10,000 miles above the visible surface and goes outward for millions of miles. This is the only part of the Sun that can be seen during an eclipse such as the one in February 1979. At any other time, the corona can be seen only when special instruments are used on cameras and telescopes to shut out the glare of the Sun’s rays.
The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light, about as bright as the full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse. The corona’s rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spikelike rays near the Sun’s north and south poles. The corona is thickest at the Sun’s equator.
The corona rays are made up of gases streaming outward at tremendous speeds and reaching a temperature of more than 2 million degrees Fahrenheit. The rays of gas thin out as they reach the space around the planets. By the time the Sun’s corona rays reach the Earth, they are weak and invisible.
Questions 11-15 are based on Passage Three.
11. Matter on the Sun can exist only in the form of gas because of the Sun’s______.
A. size B. age
C. location D. temperature
12. With what topic is the second paragraph mainly concerned ?
A. The evolution of the Sun.
B. The structure of the Sun.
C. The scientific study of the Sun.
D. The distance of the Sun from the planets.
13. All of the following are parts of the Sun’s atmosphere EXCEPT the______.
A. corona B. chromosphere
C. photosphere D. core
14.As the corona rays reach the planets they become______.
A. hotter B. clearer
C. thinner D. stronger
15. What writing style is used in this passage?
A. Popular science. B. Science fiction.
C. Pure science. D. Applied science.
From good reading we can derive pleasure, companionship, experience and instruction. A good book may absorb our attention so completely for the time being that we forget our surroundings and even our identity. Reading good books is one of the greatest pleasures in life. It increases our contentment when we are cheerful, and lessens our troubles when we are sad. Whatever may be our main purpose in reading, our contact with good books should never fail to give us enjoyment and satisfaction.
With a good book in our hands we need never be lonely. Whether the characters portrayed are taken from real life or are purely imaginary, they may become our companions and friends. In the pages of books we can walk with the wise and the good of all lands and all times. The people we meet in books may delight us either because they resemble human friends whom we hold dear or because they present unfamiliar types whom we are glad to welcome as new acquaintances. Our human friends sometimes may bore us, but the friends we make in books never weary us with their company. By turning the page we can dismiss them without any fear of hurting their feelings. When human friends desert us, good books are always ready to give us friendship, sympathy and encouragement.
One of the most valuable gifts bestowed by books is experience. Few of us can travel far from home or have a wide range of experiences, but all of us can lead varied lives through the pages of books. Whether we wish to escape from the seemingly dull realities of everyday life or whether we long to visit some far-off place, a book will help us when nothing else can. To travel by book we need no bank account to pay our way, no airship or ocean liner or stream-lined train to transport us, no passport to enter the land of our heart’s desire. Through books we may get the thrill of hazardous adventure without danger. We can climb lofty mountains; brave the perils of an Antarctic winter, or cross the scorching sands of the desert, all without hardship. In books we may visit the studios of Hollywood; we may mingle with the gay throngs of the Paris boulevards; we may join the picturesque peasants in an Alpine village or the kindly natives on a South Sea island. Indeed through books the whole world is ours for the asking. The possibilities of our literary experiences are almost unlimited. The beauties of nature, the enjoyment of the music, the triumphs of architecture, the marvels of engineering, are all open to the wonder and enjoyment of those who read.
Questions 16-20 are based on Passage Four.
16. In the first paragraph, we are told that______.
A. we should always read good books, not bad ones
B. happiness can be derived only from reading
C. enjoyment can be achieved by reading good books
D. reading good books is very important in one’s life
17. Why do we sometimes forget our surroundings and identity while reading?
A. Nobody comes to disturb you.
B. Everything is quiet around you.
C. You are reading very fast.
D. You are absorbed in the book.
18. According to the writer, ______portrayed in books may become our companions
A. all characters, real and imaginary,
B. only real characters
C. only imaginary characters
D. none of the characters
19. Why do people like their acquaintances in books even more?
A. They resemble human friends.
B. They are the type we like.
C. They never desert us.
D. They never hurt our feelings.
20. “... the whole world is ours for the asking” implies that______.
A. in books the world is more accessible to us
B. we can ask to go anywhere in the world
C. we can make a claim to everything in this world
D. we can make a round-the-world trip free of charge
We were pleased to see the Defense Department finally recognize the power of the Supreme Court over prisoners of the military and order the armed forces to follow the Geneva Conventions requirement of decent treatment for all prisoners, even terrorism suspects. It was a real step forward for an administration that tossed aside the Geneva rules years ago and then tried to place itself beyond the reach of the courts.
However, the Pentagon memo released yesterday, claimed, falsely, that its prisoner policies already generally complied with the Geneva Conventions — the sole exception being the military commissions created by President Bush and struck down by the high court. That disingenuousness may have simply been an attempt to save face. If so, it was distressing but ultimately not all that significant. What really matters is that Congress bring the military prisons back under the rule of law, and create military tribunals for terrorism suspects that will meet the requirements of the Constitution and the Geneva Conventions.
The other thing that really matters is that the White House actually agrees to obey the law this time. Yesterday, the Senate Judiciary Committee held the first of three hearings scheduled this week on this issue, and the early results were mixed. Most of the senators, including key Republicans, said they were committed to drafting legislation that did more than merely rubber-stamp the way Mr. Bush decided to set up Guantánamo Bay.
The government’s witnesses, including top lawyers from the Justice and Defense Departments, seemed most interested in arguing that the military commissions were legal. They argued for what would be the worst possible outcome: that Congress just approve what Mr. Bush did and enact exceptions to the Geneva Conventions.
But Lt. Cmdr. Charles Swift of the Navy, who represented Salim Ahmed Hamdan, the prisoner whose case was before the Supreme Court, provided damning evidence about how utterly flawed those commissions were — from military prosecutors. He quoted one, Capt. John Carr of the Air Force (since promoted to major), who condemned “a halfhearted and disorganized effort by a skeleton group of relatively inexperienced attorneys to prosecute fairly the low-level accused in a process that appears to be rigged. ”
The administration has professed its allegiance to the humane treatment of prisoners and to the rule of law before. But repairing the constitutional balance of powers and America’s profoundly damaged global image demands more than lip service.
Questions 21-25 are based on Passage Five.
21. Which of the following adjectives can best describe the author’s attitude towards the Supreme Court’s act?
22. The author argues that______.
A. all the three hearings on the issue are very fruitful
B. Geneva Conventions should be obeyed by all nations
C. Supreme Court has the lightest authority over the military
D. the Defense Department’s claim is insincere and dishonest
23. The word “administration” in the last paragraph refers to______.
A. the Supreme Court
B. the Geneva Conventions
C. the Air Force
D. the White House
24. By saying that they would draft legislation that did more than merely rubber-stamp the way Mr. Bush decided to set up Guantánamo Bay, the senators meant that______.
A. they would not just draft law to help pave way for Bush’s decision
B. they would reject Mr. Bush’s decision through legislation.
C. they would see to it that the military commissions were legal
D. they would make sure that the prisoners be treated decently
25. Which of the following is true about the US government and the Defense Department?
A. They were quite honest with what they did.
B. They always obeyed the Geneva Conventions.
C. They ignored the Geneva Conventions for years.
D. They refused to obey the Supreme Court.
II. Vocabulary. ( 10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: Scan the following passage and find the words which have roughly the same meanings as those given below. The number in the bracket after each word definition refers to the number of paragraph in which the target word is. Write the word you choose on the Answer Sheet.
Self esteem, self confidence and self respect are all related. Self esteem is also defined as the judgments a person makes about himself and is affected by self confidence and respect. Self confidence is believing in our ability to take action and meet our goals. Self respect is the degree to which we believe we deserve to be happy, have rewarding relationships and stand up for our rights and values. All these factors affect whether or not we will have a healthy body image.
The images of men and women in ads today do not promote self esteem or positive self image. They’ re intended to sell products. In the U. S. billions of dollars are spent by consumers who pursue the perfect body. The message “thin is in” is sold thousands of times a day through TV, movies, magazines, billboards, newspapers and songs. Advertising conveys the message “You’re not OK. Here’s what you need to do to fix what’s wrong.”Girls and boys believe it and react to it. In a 1997 Body Image Survey, both girls and boys reported that “very thin or muscular models” made them feel insecure about themselves.
The diet/fitness craze is mind boggling. It’s not just dieting, it’s diet foods, and diet commercials. Everybody’s counting fat grams. Listen to the conversation in the lunch room, locker room or on the bus to school. The talk centers around dieting, fat thighs or tight “abs” and how many pounds can be lost with the latest diet. This kind of intense focus on food and fat can lead to abnormal eating habits or disordered eating — a precursor to eating disorders, which is taking it to the extreme.
Awareness of eating disorders got a big boost in 1995 when Princess Diana began talking openly about her struggles with bulimia. Actress Tracy Gold, still struggling with her eating disorder, continues to help others by discussing her eating disorder with the media. Recently many organizations have initiated an effort to expand awareness of eating disorders and promote a positive body image and self esteem.
26. belief in one’s own abilities ( Para. 1 )
27. explained the meaning of ( Para. 1 )
28. be worthy of ( Para. 1 )
29. bring about ( Para. 2 )
30. a mental picture of somebody ( Para. 2 )
31. most excellent ( Para. 2 )
32. advertisements ( Para. 3 )
33. the status of being far from what is usual ( Para. 3 )
34. a mental illness from eating disorders ( Para. 4 )
35. make greater in scope ( Para. 4 )
Ⅲ. Summarization. ( 20 points, 2 points for each )
Directions: In this part of the test, there are ten paragraphs. Each of the paragraphs is followed by an incomplete phrase or sentence which summarizes the main idea of the paragraph. Spell out the missing letters of the word on your Answer Sheet.
The latest survey found that half the hospitals in England which admit children have no teachers. A further quarter has only a part-time teacher. The special children’s hospitals in major cities do best; general hospitals in the country and holiday areas are worst off.
36. The survey showed that hospital teaching d ______ across the country.
The owners of the land provide the farmers with land, seed, and equipment and lend the farmers money to live on until the crops are harvested. The farmers do all the work. When the crops are harvested, a share of the crop goes to the owners, and a share goes to the farmers. These farmers are called sharecroppers.
37. Sharecroppers are farmers who do not own their own 1 ______.
People on Pacific islands once exchanged shells for goods. The Chinese used cloth and knives. In Africa, elephant tusks or salt were used. Even today, some people in Africa are still paid in salt. Coins were first invented by the Chinese.
They were round pieces of metal with a hole in the center.
38. In the past, many different things were used as c ______.
Interview is always used to select candidates. The argument against it is that through interview, employers do not choose the best candidate, but the one who gives them a good first impression. The argument in favor of it is that an employer pays more attention to the suitability of candidates’ personality for the particular work situation.
39. Arguments f ______ and against the interview as a selection procedure.
There is a man like this: Never for one minute did he look at the world or at people, except in relation to himself. He was not only the most important person in the world for himself; in his own eyes he was the only person who existed.
40. He was self-c ______.
A good amount of sleep is as important to health as diet and exercise. Most people need seven to nine hours of sleep each night. Less than that can interfere with mental and physical abilities. It can lead to more serious problems, including severe sleeplessness or sleep apnea meaning temporary stop of breathing in sleep.
4l. S ______ of a good amount of sleep.
Some Hawaiians just want greater autonomy within the state — as enjoyed by many American Indian natives over matters such as education. More ambitious is the Ka Lahui group (one part of Hawaiian natives), which declared itself a new nation in 1987 and wants full, official independence from the US.
42. The Hawaiian natives are not u ______ in their demands.
Psychologists agree that I.Q. contributes only about 20 percent of the factors that determine success. A full 80 percent comes from other factors, including what I call emotional intelligence. Following are two of the major qualities that make up emotional intelligence: self-awareness and mood management.
43. Emotional intelligence plays an important r ______ in achieving success.
Richard Wagner’s liking for his friends was measured solely by the completeness of their devotion to him, or by their usefulness to him, whether financial or artistic. The minute they failed him — even by so much as refusing a dinner invitation — or began to lessen in usefulness, he cast them off without a second thought.
44. Richard Wagner was completely s ______ in his personal relationships.
International applications are down 23% since 2003 for the universities. This was the result of increased security in the United States after the terrorist attacks in 2001. This increased security made it more difficult for students to get permits, or visas, to enter the US. Security measures also increased the time to process these visas.
45. It becomes h _______ for foreigners to study in the US.
IV. Translation. (20 points, 4 points for each)
Directions : In the following passage, there are five groups of underlined sentences. Read the passage carefully and then translate these sentences into Chinese. Write the Chinese version on your Answer Sheet.
They earn and spend, buy and sell, work and play. (46) It’s a mass of individuals, struggling to satisfy often-conflicting goals, who set the pace for the American system.
Whether the nation’s huge business machine sputters or steams ahead depends on millions of individual consumers, the real “bosses” of the American economy.
People’s decision on where to live and work, what to buy or pass over, how much to save are at the heart of the free market system. (47) Business and government take their cues from consumers, changing plans to meet their wants and needs.
Every day, the nation’s 218 million consumers spend more than 3 billion dollars. Their purchases account for almost two-thirds of all the money spent each year, with government and business responsible for the rest. The trouble is that while people’s needs are almost endless, their incomes aren’t.
Where money goes? About 70 per cent of the average household’s spending goes for necessities such as housing, food, clothes and health care. (48) To be able to afford these items and still have money left for nonessentials such as travel and entertainment, most families find themselves economizing and watching their pennies. The same problem of matching limited resources with seemingly endless demands confronts businesses and public agencies.
That is what the economy is all about — making choices on how to use limited resources of money, manpower, machinery and materials, whether it involves a shopper deciding what to buy in the supermarket or a manufacturer deciding what line of goods to produce.
(49) Choices made in the economy involve a continuous tug-of-war between consumers and producers over price.
If many businesses are offering a product and there is plenty of it to satisfy the needs of all consumers, a producer will be forced to sell at a price not far above costs in order to keep from being stuck with a lot of unmarketable supplies. This is why, for example, prices for fresh fruit and vegetables drop during the summer months when such produce is in great number.
However, a low price — especially if it falls below what it costs a seller to make the goods — will discourage production, perhaps drive the high-cost producers out of business or force them to make something else.
Again using an example from agriculture, farmers periodically plant less wheat or raise fewer cattle if the prices for those commodities give too little return for the costs involved.
On the other hand, if there is great demand for a product and supplies are tight, business will be able to raise prices, their profits will increase and they will invest in new equipment to increase output. Other firms may be attracted by the hopes of good profits to produce the scarce item, thus adding new competition.
That, in the simplest form, is the way the law of supply and demand works in free-market economy. （50）Price becomes the guidepost, telling producers what they can expect to sell at a price that more than covers their costs. At the same time, posted prices tell the consumer what he can expect to pay.